Saturday, April 30, 2011


A Confederate captain.
(9th palte tintype, Blog author's collection)
The Richmond Daily Dispatch
April 30, 1861

South Carolina. The following address has been issued by Gov. Pickens to the volunteers of the State:
       I am informed from high authority that the State of Virginia has adopted our Confederate Constitution, and is virtually a member of our Confederacy. I called for volunteers because I did not consider Virginia as under our Government. But when I am officially informed that she has joined our Confederacy I shall consider her as part of our country, and to defend her or Maryland is to defend South Carolina. Whatever troops may be ordered will be still considered as volunteers from South Carolina, and there is no power to lengthen or change their term of service; they are still volunteers from South Carolina for twelve months, and if they leave the State will be under the command of a General in the Provisional Army of the Confederate States. If two or more regiments are marched together out of this State, I will assign to their command one of our Brigadier-Generals, who will command until a General be appointed or designated by the President of the Confederate Government. One of our noble regiments is now in Virginia, and the Palmetto flag floats from the beautiful hills of Richmond. Another of the same kind started last night. You will be eager to follow wherever that banner waves.
     Soldiers of South Carolina! Hold yourselves in readiness to march, at the word, to the tomb of Washington, and swear that no Northern Goths and Vandals shall ever desecrate its sacred precincts, and that you will make of it an American Mecca, to which the votaries of freedom and independence, from the South, shall make their pilgrimage through all time to come. Let the sons of South Carolina answer to the call from the sons of Colonel Howard who led the Maryland Line in triumph over the bloody battlefield of our Cowpens. Let them know that we will return that blood with full interest, and let them feel that they are now, as they were then, our brothers. March to Virginia and lay your heads upon the bosom of this mother of States, and hear her great heart beat with new impulses for a renewed and glorious independence.
     Surely the good and the virtuous of the Northern States cannot sanction the lawless and brutal despotism now maturated at Washington.
     Be ready! Stand by your arms — mark time to the tap of independence, and at the word march forward and on ward to the Borders.--Our glorious old sister, North Carolina, is with you, and her freemen are in arms. Join them in the struggle for defence; and let tyrants know that there are men who can make them hear the firing and feel the weight of Southern steel. I shall endeavor not to expose our own State, and shall only march you beyond our borders under pressing emergency; but wherever the Confederate Flag floats, there, too, is our country, now and forever.
F. W. Pickens.
Alabama troops for Virginia.

     Within four or five days a regiment of Alabama troops will concentrate at this point and immediately embark for Virginia. Several of our companies will probably go in this regiment. The next regiment, which is to be composed of North and East Alabama companies, will concentrate in a few days afterwards at Dalton, Georgia, and also proceed to Virginia at as early a moment as possible.--Montgomery Advertiser.

First National Confederate Flag.
The Capitol flag.

     A splendid new flag of the Southern Confederacy, made to the order of the State, by Mr. Geo. Ruskell, of Main street, eighteen by twenty-five feet long, of the best bunting, was run up to the top of the flag-staff on the Southern end of the State House yesterday — a glorious symbol of a new order of things. Mr. Ruskell is now making for Capt. Robt. C. Triggs' company of Montgomery Fencibles. (we believe they are here now,) a beautiful little company flag of blue silk, embellished with the Virginia coat of arms, which the ladies of Christiansburg had intended to present to the Fencibles in May. May is not quite here, but the Fencibles are. Their flag has on it the significant and appropriate motto: "Virginia knows her rights, and will maintain them." That's the right talk.

Thursday, April 28, 2011


The New Orleans Daily True Delta
April 28, 1861

William Walker, famed filibuster
who was executed on his last
attempt to take power back in
Nicaragua. He had many loyal
former soldiers of fortune in New
Orleans. (Library of  Congress)

The Walker Guards.
     Company  A of this corps, numbering 84 men, rank and file, was mustered into service yesterday by Adjutant General Grivot. After mustering, John Coyle, an old Nicaraguan, was elected 2nd lieutenant. These boys are, beyond all shadow of doubt, the right material; don't fight for  office or emolument, but will fight to the death for the honor of the name they bear of their chief, who was basely betrayed and then murdered.
     Company B of this command, every man of whom has a big heart and a strong arm for the south, marched to Camp Davis last evening.
     This corps, Captain Harris in command of Company A, Captain Sam. McChesney in command of company B,  and Major Dolan in command of the battalion, will prove their manhood and devotion to the south, and will show, on a bloody field, that they keep at heart the brave lessons of General Walker, whose base murder every Nicaraugua-American hopes to see yet avenged.

[Editor's note: the Walker Guards, Captain Robert A. Harris commanding, became Company A of the 1st Special Battalion (Wheat's) Louisiana Volunteers. Captain Samuel McChesney became captain of the Grivot Rifles, Company E, 15th Louisiana Infantry Regiment.]

Monday, April 25, 2011


[USPS press release]

     The Postal Service begins a series with these stamps commemorating the 150th anniversary of the Civil War, joining others across the country in paying tribute to the American experience during the tumultuous years from 1861 to 1865. The stamps will go on sale April 12.

     A souvenir sheet of two stamps will be issued each year through 2015. For 2011, one stamp depicts the beginning of the war in April 1861 at Fort Sumter, South Carolina, while the other depicts the first major battle of the war three months later at Bull Run, near Manassas, Virginia.
     The Civil War profoundly changed the country, bringing an end to slavery, transforming the social life of the South and the economic life of the nation, and having a lasting impact on those who lived through the four-year ordeal.
     Art Director Phil Jordan of Falls Church, VA, created the stamps using images of Civil War battles. The Fort Sumter stamp is a reproduction of a Currier & Ives lithograph, circa 1861, titled “Bombardment of Fort Sumter, Charleston Harbor.” The Bull Run stamp is a reproduction of a 1964 painting by Sidney E. King titled “The Capture of Rickett’s Battery.” The painting depicts fierce fighting on Henry Hill over an important Union battery during the Battle of First Bull Run.
     For the stamp pane’s background image, Jordan used a photograph dated circa 1861 of a Union regiment assembled near Falls Church, Virginia.
     The stamp pane includes comments on the war by Frederick Douglass, Abraham Lincoln, Thomas J. “Stonewall” Jackson, and Robert E. Lee. It also includes some of the lyrics used during the Civil War in “Johnny is Gone for a Soldier,” a song dating back at least to the Revolutionary War.

Sunday, April 24, 2011

150-Year-Ago -- Progress of the War

An early war volunteer.

The Richmond Daily Dispatch
April 24, 1861

Unanimity among the people — Troops for Virginia — Affairs at Pensacola — Things in Maryland, &c.


     Our correspondence from various sections of the State continues to furnish accounts of the enthusiastic feeling which pervades every class. From Louisa Court-House, we have the following, dated April 22d:
     The noble and self-preserving spirit of the people of this county was never wrought to such a pitch as it now is, and it appears, if possible, it has not as yet reached its growth. I have heard a number of good citizens, who by age are exempt from military duty, avow, in solemn terms, that they will, at every and all hazards, if needs be, go to the field of honor, and there defend their rights until the last ruddy drop of sweat shall have returned to its mother earth, and thus
     "Look proudly to heaven from the death-bed of fame."
     The young men are on tip-toe to go into immediate service, and I know many who intend joining the volunteer company known as the "Louisa Blues." A company was being organized at this place on Saturday (it being militia drill day and Circuit Court day,) with a view of offering their services to Governor Letcher, to assist in holding fortifications, &c., for the defence of the State. A "Home Guard has also been organized in this vicinity, consisting of many of the most worthy and deserving gentlemen of the county."
     A Chesterfield correspondent writes (April 22d) as follows:
     There was a large gathering of the people to-day to provide means for equipping the volunteers, organizing a Home Guard, and providing for committees of vigilance. C. W. Friend was called to the chair, and J. W. Howard was appointed Secretary. Mr. E. Williams offered a resolution to raise $1,500 for immediate use, to buy uniforms, the County Court to reimburse the people for the outlay, and make a further appropriation of $8,000 at the next meeting of the Court. The citizens came forward promptly and endorsed the bonds of the committee appointed to raise the money, and the whole amount was soon raised. P. H. Drewry, R. A. Willis and E. Williams were appointed to disburse the money. Liberal sums were contributed to buy horses and uniforms for Capt. H. W. Cox's Troop, also for Capt. Coghill's Guard. A new company at Etterick's was also uniformed. Dr. J. W. Walsh is raising a new company at the C. H. Pitts. Captain Asa Smith's company, at the same place, is full, well drilled and ready. A new artillery company is raising — headquarters to be at Chester.
     Our delegate to the Convention wrote a feeling letter to the meeting, and has opened his purse wide to afford aid to all of our enterprises.
     Rev J. W. Howard was elected Capt. of the Home Guard.
     We are fully alive to the great importance of being prepared for this cruel and diabolical war, and we are all united.
     From Norfolk we have the following;
     Every heart here seems enlisted in the grave cause of justice and independence; and many a noble son is willing and ready to obey the voice of Virginia, and to lay down their lives in glorious defence of her soil. Never have I seen such an almost entire unanimity of feeling than at this time pervades our community.
     Party lines have been lost and forgotten in this the perilous and excited moment of our trial. Every man seems to rise supremely above all other considerations but that of serving his state.
     A correspondent of Pleasant Grove Church, Green county, writes:
     The members of Pleasant Grove Church and other gentlemen of the vicinity, organized a society on Saturday, the object of which is to see that the family of no volunteer or any other who may be called into his country's service, shall suffer for any of the necessaries or comforts of life. Great enthusiasm prevailed during the organization, eloquent and patriotic speeches were made by Major Jennings and other gentlemen.
     There has been great rejoicing in this section that Virginia has at last cast her lot with the glorious South. The war fever is running high, I have yet to see the first man who is not ready to shoulder his musket when ever called upon. troops for Virginia.
     The Augusta (Ga.) Constitutionalist, of the 21st instant, says:
     Lieut. Delaigle, of the Georgia Army, received a dispatch this morning, from Gov. Brown, ordering three hundred and fifty muskets and a quantity of cartridges, to be delivered at the South Carolina railroad depot, to-morrow (Sunday) morning. Four companies of troops are expected to arrive to-morrow morning, on their way to Virginia, and these articles are for their equipment.
     The same paper further says:
     The Floyd Rifles, Capt. Thomas Hardeman, and the Macon Volunteers, Capt. R. A. Smith, will arrive here this morning, and leave for Virginia, on an extra train, on the South Carolina road.
     The Columbus (Ga.) Sun, of the 20th, says:
     Capt. Colquitt received a dispatch last night from Gov. Brown, requesting to know If the Light Guards could start to-night for Norfolk, Virginia. We are informed that the dispatch was answered in the affirmative, and that the company will leave for that destination by the train this afternoon, at 3 o'clock, they having been ready for orders some time past.
     The Charleston Mercury of the 20th has the following:
     South Carolina will aid Virginia with two regiments of her victorious troops to maintain the bold position which she has assumed against Federal usurpation. We understand that the regiment of Col. Maxcy Gregg, and the regiment of Col. Pettigrew, have been selected for this service. Of course these regiments will have an opportunity of voting for or against the service, but no one doubts the result. Both regiments will be en route, in a few days, for the scene of their future laurels.
      Affairs at Pensacola.
     A letter from a volunteer at Warrington Fla. April 18th, says:
     After a journey of two weeks, we arrived here, and found everything looking warlike. Gen. Bragg, so I understand, is going to send us down to Fort McRae, and we have to learn the artillery drill, because we are the best drilled company in the whole volunteer force now stationed here. We have about 8,000 troops here, and more are arriving every day.
    Everybody welcomed us heartily when we arrived at Pensacola, as they had heard and read so much about us, and said we were welcome to anything they had. Some of our mess are on guard, and the rest of them cleaning up a parade ground.
     Gen. Bragg says he can take Fort Pickens with the forces he has in four hours. We have some of the best batteries in the whole of North America. Our men will take charge of four 10-inch columbiads, throwing 128 pound balls; four 8-inch, throwing 100 pound balls; and will be behind a breastwork about 20 feet thick, including wall and sand-bags.
     We will in a few days have here two of the greatest Generals in the world--Gens. Bragg and Beauregard. We have also the best Engineer — that is, the man who superintends the making of mortars bomb-shells, cannon, cannon balls, &c., and also the throwing of shells. It has been acknowledged that he can throw shells with greater accuracy than any other man in the country.
A Maryland volunteer for  the
     The Baltimore American, of Monday, says:
     The New York Seventh Regiment left New York at 6 o'clock on Saturday evening, and was expected to reach Baltimore at four o'clock on Friday. We learn from a gentleman who left Philadelphia at 11 o'clock on Friday that Broad street was crowed with people waiting to see them start for Baltimore, whither it was understood they were to start in a special train at 12 o'clock. A dispatch from Philadelphia on Saturday said that they had not left the Broad Street Depot. This, however, must have been intended as a blind, as it is now ascertained that they arrived at Perrymansville on Saturdayafternoon, and having seized the shipferry shipsteamer Maryland, and all the other Susquehana steamers, crossed the bay to Annapolis, where they arrived on Sunday morning. They are said to be accompanied by a large force of Pennsylvanians, and expected to reach Washington from Annapolis by railroad. It was, however, announced yesterday that the truck on the Annapolis branch was being torn up, and the further progress of the troops impeded. At a late hour we received the following dispatch from our correspondent at Annapolis:
     Annapolis,April 21, 9 P. M.
     This morning the shipsteamer Maryland (the immense railroad ferry best at Havre Grace) came into this port, having on board eight hundred Massachusetts troops, commanded by Col. Butler, en route for Washington. The steamer landed her troops at the Naval Academy, and the shipfrigate Constitution is now being towed out of the river for the purpose of taking the troops to Washington. Another steamer with troops to lying off the harbor, supposed to be the Seventh Regiment of New York. The most intense excitement prevails in the city, and messengers have been sent through- out the country for troops to concentrate here.
     We received the following last evening from our Annapolis correspondent:
     Annapolis,April 21.
     The shipsteamer Maryland arrived here this morning, having on board Col. Butler and eight hundred Massachusetts troops, en route for Washington. The steamer is now lying alongside of the U. S. Ship
Constitution, at the Naval Academy, and all the gates leading from the city to the yard are locked, and additional watchmen guarding the entrances. The Constitution will convey the troops to Washington.
     Annapolis Telegraph Office,April 21, 10 Â.M. ½ o'clock.
     The telegraph office at the Annapolis junction has been taken possession of by the Government, and the above dispatch is sent by pony express. Another steamer with troops is now coming in the harbor.
We learn that Governor Hicks sent to Colonel Butler a protest against the landing of troops at Annapolis. He accordingly proceeded to the Naval Academy, and landed his men there, over which the Federal Government has exclusive jurisdiction.

Friday, April 22, 2011

150-Year-Ago -- Massachusetts Troops Battle In Baltimore

The 6th Massachusetts Regiment had to battle its way through
Baltimore, Maryland on its ways to Washington, D.C. on April
19, 1861. (Library of Congress)
The Richmond Daily Dispatch
April 22, 1861
On Friday morning, the excitement which had been gradually rising in Baltimore for some days, with reference to the passage of Northern volunteer troops southward, reached its climax upon the arrival of the Massachusetts and other volunteers, some from Philadeiphia, at President street depot, in that city, at 10 ½ o'clock. A large crowd had assembled, evidently to give them an unwelcome reception. The arrangements contemplated the passage of thirty-one cars occupled by the volunteers, from President street depot to the Camden station of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, over the intervening space oceupied by the Pratt street track. The Sun says:

The cars were dispatched one after the other by horses, and upon the arrival of the first car at the intersection of Gay and Pratt sts., a vast assemblage having collected there, demonstrations were made which evidently contemplated the stopping of the troops at that point. Just there, repairs of the road were in progress, and a number of paving stones were lying in heaps, which were seized by the crowd and used for purposes of assault.

Six of the cars had succeeded in passing on their way before the crowd were able to accomplish their purpose of barricading the track, which they now began to effect by placing large heavy anchors lying in the vicinity directly across the rails. Some seven or eight were borne by the crowd and laid on the track, and thus the passage of the cars was effectually interrupted.

Having accomplished this object, the crowd set to lustily cheering for the South, for Jefferson Davis, South Carolina and secession, and groans for sundry obnoxious parties. In the mean while the troops thus delayed at the depot remained quietly in the cars until tired of their inaction, and apprehending a more formidable demonstration, they came to the conclusion to face the music and march through the city.

They accordingly evacuated the cars, and rapidly gathering on the street north of the depot, formed in line and prepared to make the attempt. The word was given to "march," and the head of the line had advanced some fifteen paces, when it was driven back upon the main body by the immense crowd, still further increased by a body of men who marched down to the depot, bearing at their head a Confederate flag.

The Riot.

Eight of the cars started from the President street depot and six passed safely to the Camden station. The other two soon returned, the track in the meantime having been obstructed at the corner of Pratt and Gay streets by anchors, paving stones, sand, &c., being put on it by the crowd. Attempts had previously been made to tear up the track, but the police by strenuous effort prevented. A cart load of sand which was being driven along was seized and thrown upon the track.

The bridge across Jones' Falls on Pratt street, was also soon after barricaded with boards, &c., which were being used previously by workmen in repairing it.

After considerable delay it was determined to make the attempt to march the remaining troops through the city, only about sixty of whom were supplied with arms. The remainder were recruits, and occupied second-class and baggage cars.

At the head of this column, on foot, Mayor Brown placed himself, and walked in front, exerting all his influence to preserve peace.

Just before the movement was made from the cars, a large crowd of persons went down President street with a Southern flag, and met the troops as they emerged from the cars. The Southern flag was then carried in front of the column, and hooting and yelling began, and as soon as the troops turned out of Canton avenue, they were greeted with a volley of stones.

At the corner of Fawn street, two of the soldiers were struck with stones and knocked down; one of them was taken by the police to the drug store of T. J. Pitt, at the corner of Pratt and High streets, and the other to the Eastern police station.

The yelling continued, and the stones flew thick and fast. At Pratt street Bridge a gun was fired, said by Policeman No. 71 to have been fired from the ranks of the soldiers.

Then the crowd pressed stronger, until the body reached the corner of Gray street, where the troops presented arms and fired. Several persons fell on the first round, and the crowd became furious. A number of revolvers were used, and their shots took effect in the ranks.

People then ran in every direction in search of arms, but the armories of the military companies of the city were closely guarded and noue could be obtained. The firing continued from Frederick street to South street in quick succession, but how many fell cannot now be ascertained.

Among those wounded was a young man named Francis X. Ward, who resides at corner of Baltimore and Aisquith streets. He was shot in the groin, but the wound is not thought to be mortal.

A young man named James Clark, formerly connected with No. 1 Hock and Ladder Company, was shot through the head, and instantly killed.

James Myers, residing on Fayette street, was shot in the right side of the back, near the spine, and the ball, a Minnie, passed through him, and lodged amongst the false ribs. He was mortally wounded. John McCann, of No. 2 North Bond street, was mortally wounded.

A man named Flannery, residing on Federick street, near Pratt, wasmortally wounded, and died shortly after.

--Carr, residing at the corner of Exeter and Bank streets, was wounded by a musket ball in the knee. The wound is severe.

John Staub, clerk with Tucker & Smith, on Charles street, shot in the fore finger of the right hand.

A young man named Malony was shot on Pratt street, near Gay, and died at the central police station.

James Keenan was wounded by having a Minuie ball pass through his body. He was one of the stranger soldiers. His wound was supposed to be mortal. He was taken to the office of Dr. Hintze, where he received surgical attendance, and was then taken to the Protestant Infirmary.

At the police station, an old man, who did not give his name, was badly wounded.

How many were wounded it is impossible to ascertain, as many of the soldiers who left on the cars were known to have been injured.

Kirk Hatch, of Philadelphia, was wounded on the head by a blow from a stone or bludgeon. He was severely injured.

--Conner, of Baltimore, was also wounded on the head with a stone, and was taken to his residence on Bond street.

At the central police station two soldiers were taken in dead, as also two citizens. --Three soldiers and one citizen were taken to the same place wounded. The crowd passed on up Pratt street, and near Light street there was another volley fired.

At Light street wharf a boy named William Reed, a hand on board the oyster sloop "Wild Pigeon," of York county, Va., received a ball through the abdomen, and was dying, at last accounts, in the hold of the schooner.

Another boy, Patrick Griffin, employed at the Green House, Pratt street, was shot through the bowels while looking from the door.

A frenzied crowd returned the fire from revolvers, and with bricks. Andrew Robbins, a member of a volunteer company from Stonington, Conn., was shot in the back of the head, and fell from the ranks. He was taken into the drug-store of Jesse S. Hunt's corner of Pratt and Charles streets. His wound is dangerous.

Another soldier, S. H. Needham, a member of the Massachusetts regiment, was struck by a brick and knocked insensible from the ranks. He was taken into the bookstore of T. N. Kurtz, 181 Pratt street. He subsequently died. Prof. J. W. R. Dunbar was very active in rendering assistance to the wounded, as were also other physiclans.

The firing on the citizens at Howard and Dover streets.

At the corner of Howard and Dover streets one of the marching companies was pressed upon, when the troops in one of the cars fired a volley into the citizens. The ball struck in the brick walls of the dwelling, dashing out pieces of brick, and making large holes in the walls. The fire was returned from several points with guns and revolvers, and with bricks by the crowd. Several soldiers were wounded here, but it is thought no citizens were struck by the bullets of the soldiers. The faces of many of the soldiers, as seen through the car windows, were streaming with blood from cuts received from the shattered glass of car windows, and from the missiles hurled into them. Several wounded, supposed to have been shot in their passage along Pratt street, were taken out of the car in a bleeding and fainting condition at the Camden station, and transferred to the other cars.

From Gay to South street, on Pratt, the fight with the soldiers who marched, or rather ran through town, was terrific. Large paving stones were hurled into the ranks from every direction, the negroes who were about the wharf, in many instances, joining in the assault. At Gay street the soldiers fired a number of shots, though without hitting any one, so far as could be ascertained. After firing this volley the soldiers again broke into a run, but another shower of stones being hurled into the ranks at Commerce street with such force as to knock several of them down, the order was given to another portion of them to halt and fire, which had to be repeated before they could be brought to a halt. They then wheeled and fired some twenty shots, but from their stooping and dodging to avoid the stones, but four or five shots took effect, the marks of a greater portion of their balls being visible on the walls of the adjacent warehouses, even up to the second stories.--Here four citizens fell, two of whom died in a few moments, and the other two were carried off, supposed so be mortally wounded.

As one of the soldiers fired he was struck with a stone and knocked down, and as he attempted to arise another stone struck him in the face, when he crawled into a store, and prostrating himself on the floor, clasped his hands and begged piteously for his life, saying that he was threatened with instant death by his officers if he refused to accompany them. He said one-half of them had been forced to come in the same manner, and he hoped all who forced others to come might be killed before they got through the city. He plead so hard that no further vengeance was bestowed upon him, and he was taken to the police station to have his wounds dressed. As soon as they had fired at this point they again wheeled and started off in a full run, when some three or four parties issued from the warehouses there and fired into them, which brought down three more soldiers, one of whom was carried into the same store with the one above alluded to, and died in a few moments. The others succeeded in regaining their feet, and proceeded on with their comrades, the whole running as fast as they could and a running fire was kept up by the soldiers from this point to the depot, the crowd continuing to hurl stones into the ranks throughout the whole line of march.

The troops reach the Camden Railroad station.

As early as nine o'clock throngs collected about the Camden Station in anticipation of the arrival of the troops from the President street depot. The througs gradually augmented until about 10 ½ o'clock, when a large body of police appeared, and the mass took it for granted that the troops were coming. Meanwhile, the assembly kept itself informed on events at the lower depot by several young men on horseback, who rode rapidly forward and back between the depots. The Mayor of the city and the Board of Police Commissioners did their utmost to pacify the crowd, as well as did other prominent citizens. Finally crowds, rushing pell-mell from the lower streets towards the depot, gave notice that the cars were coming, and they arrived one after another, drawn by four horses. The blinds of most of the cars were shut down, and in those not provided with blinds the troops laid down flat to avoid the bricks thrown at them. The car windows were perfectly riddled, and their sides bore great indentations from the rocks and bricks hurled at them.

The scene while the troops were changing cars was indiscribably fearful. Taunts, clothed in the most fearful language, were hurled at them by the panting crowd, who, almost breathless with running, pressed up to the car windows, presenting knives and revolvers, and cursed up into the faces of the soldiers.--The police were thrown in between the cars, and forming a barrier, the troops changed cars, many of them cocking their muskets as they stepped on the platform.

After embarking the assemblage expected to see the train move off, but its departure was evidently delayed in the vain hope that the crowd would disperse; but no, it swelled, and the troops expressed to the officers of the road their determination to go at once, or they would leave the cars and make their way to Washington.
While the delay was increasing the excitement, a wild cry was raised on the platform, and a dense crowd ran down the platform and out the railroad track towards the Spring Gardens, until the track for a mile was black with an excited, rushing mass. The crowd, as it went, placed obstrustions of every description on the track. Great logs and telegraph poles, requiring a dozen or more men to move them, were laid across the rails, and stones rolled from the embankment.

A body of police followed after the crowd, both in a full run, and removed the obstructions as fast as they were placed on the track. Various attempts were made to tear up the track with logs of wood and pieces of timber, and there was a great outcry for pickaxes and handspikes, but only one or two could be found. The police interfered on every occasion, but the crowd, growing large and more excited, would dash off into a breakneck run for another position further on, until the county line was reached. The police followed, running, until forced to stop from exhaustion. At this point many of the throng gave it up from exhaustion, but a crowd, longer winded, dashed on for nearly a mile further, now and then pausing to attempt to force the rails, or place some obstruction upon them. They could be distinctly seen for a mile along the track where it makes a bend at the Washington Road bridge. When the train went out, the mass of people had mostly returned to the depot. Shots and stones were exchanged between the military and citizens at several points, with the result detailed elsewhere.

The Shooting and Killing of Robert W. Davis, Esq.--inquest at the Southern Police station.

The death of Robert W. Davis, Esq., at the hands of the Northern troops yesterday, has created an intense feeling in this community, especially among the merchants, of which class he was an honored member, in the firm of Messrs. Pegram, Paynter & Davis, Baltimore street. He had gone out to the railroad track with the multitude, and when shot was standing apart with some gentlemen on an elevation, between the distillery and Redley street, on the Spring Garden side. He received a Minnie musket ball in his left side, and reeling for a moment or two, fell, and died without uttering a word, though he breathed several times after policemen Pumphrey, Creamer, Butler and Hawkins reached him. A ball also penetrated the back of his coat. Two or three shots were fired from the rear cars after he fell, The body was conveyed in a vehicle to the southern police station, where Justice John Showacre appeared at three o'clockyesterday afternoon and summoned a jury of inquest, composed of the following persons: George R. Berry, (foreman,) Wm.T. Spies, James Cann, J. H. Bradley, John Lloyd, A. C. Wheeler, Peter Leuts, George W. Mitchell, M. Sloan, George R. Rhodes, George Boyce, Henry Fowle. Dr. McKew examined the body for the jury, who, after reviewing it as required by law, adjourned to 9 o'clock this morning, to assemble at the southern station.

The corpse was laid out at the station dressed in the clothes the deceased had on when he received his death wound--one kid glove on, and the other partly drawn. Great curiosity was evined by the citizens to view the body, and expressions of sympathy were deep and fervent. At four o'clock the remains were placed in a coffin and conveyed to deceased's late residence, corner of Saratoga and Liberty streets, Mr. Davis leaves a widow, but no children. He was an Irishman by birth, and married in Virginia. He has a brother who is an officer in the British army. Immediately upon the announcement of his death many of the wholesale dry goods stores of the city were closed in respect to his memory and in testimony of his worth. He was a gentleman of irreproachable character, fine intelligence, and great popularity in mercantile circles.

We learn from an eye-witness that the deceased had gone out to the railroad track in company with Thomas W. Hall, Jr., Leslie Buckler, of the firm of Buckler, Shipley & Co., and two other gentlemen, and was returning towards the city when they met the train coming out, followed by the excited multitude. At this time very few in the crowd knew of the fearful deed of blood which had been enacted on Pratt street. Mr. Davis and his companions stepped aside to see the train pass, when two or three soldiers pointed their muskets from the car windows in a threatening manner, at which the crowd langhed. In another moment nearly a dozen muskets were fired from the cars into the spectators, and Mr. Davis fell, Mr. Hall, who was leaning on the deceased's shoulder, said, "Davis, are you hurt?" to which he replied, "Yes, I am killed." He then relapsed into the agonies of death. The funeral of the deceased will take place from Emanuel (Episcopal) Church, at 3 o'clock to-morrow afternoon.

The death of Philip Thomas Miles.

Philip Thomas Miles, son of Uriah Miles, Esq., residing at No. 337 West Fayette street, was shot dead in the vicinity of Pratt and South streets, during the discharge of a volley from the soldiers. The ball entered at the navel, and passed entirely through the stomach. He died instantly, and the body was conveyed to the middle district station, where an inquest was held. The verdict was that the deceased came to his death by a discharge from firearms at the hands of some persons unknown. The father of the deceased, on hearing of the tragedy, repaired to the spot, and learning that the body had been removed to the station, repaired thither, and had the remains conveyed to his residence. Deceased was an estimable young man, about 19 years of age, and had but recently left school.

Rushing to arms.

When it became evident that the Northern troops were firing with ball cartridge upon the citizens, there was an instant resort to firearms, and people rushed frantically to their homes and the gun shops. The gun store of Mr. J. C. J. Meyer, 14 West Pratt st., near Mill, was broken into by an excited, unarmed crowd, who armed themselves, assuring the proprietor that his guns would be returned to him, or full compensation made.--Mr. Meyer, with tears in his eyes, said he was a poor man, but a Southerner. A crowd rushed into the gunsmith establishment of Alexander McComas, No. 51 South Calvert street, and armed themselves with a number of the weapons in the store. At the first collision with the troops the citizens were mostly unarmed.

We learn that Col. Isaac M. Denson, of the firm of Messrs. Denson & Buck, No. 100 Light street, has tendered to the Board of Police Commissioners 900 of Hall's patent titles, and the arms are now subject to their order.

The wounded.

Last night Needham, one of the wounded Northern soldiers, was removed to the Lombar Street Infirmary, where he was attended by Prof. Hammond and Dr. Mitholland. His skull is fractured front, over the left eye, and there was a severe cut over the right eye. He will probably die. The boy, Wm. Reed, shot on board the schooner lying at Light street wharf, was wounded near the groin, and is fatal. Robbins, another of the wounded soldiers, will be conveyed to the Infirmary to-day. His wound is a musket or pistol ball in the back part of the neck, ranging up into the head.

The military.

The Governor, Mayor, and President of the Board of Police, at noon caused an order for the instant assembling of the military of the city, with instructions to repel the march of any more Northern troops through the city.

In a short time thereafter, Gen. Edgerton appeared on the street and told the people what had been done, and it gave satisfaction. In the afternoon, the First Light Division was on Calvert street, fully armed and equipped.

The Battalion of Maryland Guards, Col. Brush, was out in full force. The Battalion of BaltimoreCity Guards, under Lt. Col. Warner; three companies of Independent Greys; two companies of Law Greys; the Shields Guards; the Jackson Guards; the Wells and McComas Rifles, and the Eagle Artillery. The whole division formed on Calvert street. Gens. Watkins and Egerton, Col. Peters. Majors Fox and Carr, Quartermaster Scott and Adjutant Swinney, were the regimental officers, besides Col. Brush and Lieut. Col. Warner.

Thursday, April 21, 2011

150-years-ago -- Tiger Rifles Formed

The New Orleans Daily True Delta
April 21, 1861

A Tiger Rifles drummer by
A.C. Redwood, Century
New Orleans Tiger Rifles

Alexander White - Captain
Robert Teller - First Lieutenant
James Brown - Second Lieutenant.
Robert Hawkins -  First Sergeant.
Charles Lewis - Second Sergeant
Peter J. Hackett - Third Sergeant.
Joseph Cooper - Fourth Sergeant.
Joseph Flemmaker (?) - First Corporal
William Keler (?) - Second Corporal.
Michael Welch - Third Corporal.
Robert Bristor - Fourth Corporal.
S.P. Dushane - Quartermaster.
Robert Cumming - Secretary.
Seventy-Two Privates.
     Rendevous No. 29 Front Levee, where a few more able-bodied men will be received.
     Captain White was all through the Mexican war, and also an officer in hard service of the U.S.Army for five years.

[Editor's note: This was a preliminary  roster of commissioned officers and non-commissioned officers. In the final roster White was captain, Thomas Adrian, first lieutenant, Edward Hewitt and S.P Dushane, second lieutenants. This company became Company B, 1st Special Battalion Louisiana Volunteers commanded by Major R.C. Wheat. The company became famous for its zouave uniforms and heorics at the First Battle of Manassas. Another advertisement stated Captain White spent five years in the U.S. Navy.]

Tuesday, April 19, 2011

150-years-ago -- SECESSION OF VIRGINIA

The Richmond Daily Dipatch
April 19, 1861

War spirit in Virginia.

A Virginia voluteer wearing a secession badge,
looks ready to defend SouthernIndependence.
(Library of Congress)
Accounts from the country represent the war spirit in the interior of Virginia as most intense and enthusiastic. The whole population is in arms, and the only difficulty is in restraining them till the proper moment arrives. Never, even in the war of the Revolution, was there anything approaching the unanimity and the deep and determined character of the war spirit in Virginia. The general disposition is not to stand on the defensive, but to make the enemy pay at his own fireside the cost of his ferocity. There are means of reaching the seaboard and interior cities of the North and West of which they little dream.

Secession of  Virginia

The announcement that the Convention of Virginia (April 17)  had passed an Ordinance of Secession was received with the most universal and profound satisfaction. There are no longer in Virginia two parties. The Union men and the Secessionists are arrayed in a solid band of brotherhood under the Flag of Virginia.--The only rivalry is which shall do and suffer most in defence of our common honor against the monstrous despotism at Washington.--Lincoln's Proclamation has accomplished the union of all parties in Virginia and the South. The Ordinance of Secession is the answer of the Convention to that Proclamation, and the action of the Convention is but the echo of the People's Will.

The old Union, for which our fathers fought and bled, has been willfully sacrificed by a Black Republican despot, and he now seeks to wrench from us our Liberty and Independence. Virginia, which led the van in the war of 76, now meets him on the threshold. She has been slow to act, but she will be slower still to retrace her steps. The Union has lost its brightest planet, but it will henceforth beam as a star of the first magnitude in the purer, brighter and grander constellation of the Southern Cross.

The Torchlight procession to-night — Secession excitement.

It was proposed by the people that when the Convention did anything definite to honor the embodied wisdom of the State, that they should be treated to an exhibition of pyrotechnics. . . . Having attained the enviable distinction of doing a thing eminently worthy of the name and fame of representatives of the sovereignty of the Old Dominion, it was resolved that their ears should be assailed with rapidly-recurring explosions, from the feeble torpedo to the immense Chinese cracker, with an occasional report from a pocket pistol or revolver. There was also to be, on the happening of the contingency above related, a pleasing demonstration in the illumination of the horizon by balloons, rockets, Roman candles, and similar projectiles. It was also determined that an imitation of the brilliantly-colored Aurora Borealis, which occasionally spans the vault of heaven, illuminating it with a weird glow of unnatural beauty. should pale its ineffectual fires before the might of Roman candles, sky-rockets, mines of stars, volcanoes, triangles, tourbillions, flower-pots, scrolls, pin-wheels, serpents, chasers, grasshoppers, blue and Bengal lights, which appeared to signalize the deed. In accordance with this preconceived intention on the part of a patriotic people, an immense gathering of persons, old and young, will take place to-night at 8½ o'clock, in front of the City Hall, among whom will be many citizens from Petersburg and other places, whose uncontrollable inclination leads them to pay this testimonial to the late but gallant action of the Convention and the resumed sovereignty of Virginia. These will all be supplied with torches and every species of pyrotechnics, and it is supposed the utmost enthusiasm, amounting almost to a wildness of exultation, will pervade the immense gathering, which we are certain will number many thousands. Let all fulminate who can, and let those who cannot do so. testify their respect to the cause by joining in the procession. The demonstration will be the largest one that has ever taken place here. Depend on that.

Monday, April 18, 2011

150-years-ago -- Volunteers Assemble in New Orleans

The New Orleans Daily True Delta
April 18, 1861

An early war New Orleans volunteer.
(Blog author's collection)
     Col. Wheat Oraganizing a Company. - It will be seen, by reference to a notice in another column, that the well-known and gallant Col. R.C. Wheat is now in the city, and has opened a rendezvous at 64 St. Charles street, with a view of raising a company for immediate and active service. The notice is sufficient, we think, to fill the ranks of Col. Wheat in twenty-four hours.
[Editor's Note: Wheat was a famous soldier of fortune and Mexican War veteran. He became a major  in command of the famed 1st Special Battalion Louisiana Volunteers.]

     Attention, Volunteers!
     The under-signed has opened a Rendezvous at 64 St. Charles street, first floor, up stairs, for the purpose of forming a company of VOLUNTEERS for active service. The time for action has now arrived. Let the chivalry of the city and State, then, rally to the standard of the Southern Confederacy. - R.C. Wheat.

     The Walker Guards.
     This compnay held an election last night,  which resulted in the unanimous choice of R.A. Harris as captain, and Wm. H. Kaennon 2d lieutenant.
     We understand the boys wish to form a battalion under their old major.
[Editor's note: This company, made up of veteran filibusters who had fought under William Walker in Nicarauga, became Company A of Wheat's battalion.]
The Delta Rifles.
     In another column will be found a call for those who wish to volunteer and join the "Delta Rifles." This corps has been initiated, and carried through so far, in as spirited a manner as any company in town, and now has upon its roll as fine a body of men as could be selected. But the company is not as perfect as its officers, desire, and hence, the call for volunteers. We recommend with pleasure this company of volunteers. The captain, H. Breen, we are assured is of the right stamp of men. First Lieut. H.C. Gardner we know to be an officer whom men will follow to the death, for he is gallant, brave, and good-hearted. The rendezvous of the company will be assertained by referring to the official notice.
[Editor's note: The Delta Rifles became Company C of Wheat's battalion.]

Saturday, April 16, 2011

150-Year-Ago -- The Zouave Mystique

[Excerpt from UT Texas Digital Archives]

The Alexandria, (La.) Constitutional
April 13, 1861

A zouave from the Tiger Rifles, Company
B, 1st Special Battalion Louisiana Volun-
teers. (Louisiana Civil War Centennial
"What is a Zouave?"—As this class of soldiers is becoming quite popular of late, especially in New Orleans, we copy for the benefit of our readers the following somewhat "extravagant" description, by Doesticks:

A fellow with a red bag having sleeves to it for a coat; with two red bags without sleeves to them for trowsers; with an embroidered and braided bag for a vest; with a cap like a red woolen saucepan; with yellow boots like the fourth robber in a stage play; with a moustache like two half pound paint brushes, and a sort of sword gun or gun sword for a weapon, that looks like a lonely musket, indiscreet and tender—that is a Zouave.

A fellow who can "put up" a hundred and ten pound dumb bell; who can climb up an eighty foot rope hand over hand, with a barrel of flour hanging to his heels; who can do the "giant swing" on a horizontal bar with a fifty-six tied to each ankle; who can walk up two flights of stairs holding a heavy man in each hand at arm's length; and who can climb a greased pole, feet first, carrying a barrel of pork in his teeth—that is a Zouave.

A fellow who can jump seventeen feet four inches high without a spring board; who can tie his legs in a double bow knot round his neck without previously softening his shinbones in a steam bath; who can walk Blondin's out-door tight rope with his stomach outside of nine cocktails, a suit of armor outside of the stomach, and a stiff northeast gale outside of that; who can set a forty foot ladder on end, balance himself on the top of it, and shoot wild pigeons on the wing, one at a time, just behind the eye, with a single-barrel Minie rifle, three hundred yards distance, and never miss a shot; who can take a five-shooting revolver in each hand and knock the spots of the ten of diamonds at eighty paces, turning somersets all the time, and firing every shot in the air—that is a Zouave.

Tuesday, April 12, 2011


The bombardment of Fort Sumter commenced at 4:30 a.m. April 12, 1861.
(Library of Congress)


The Charles Mercury – April 13, 1861

As may have been anticipated from our notice of the military movements in our city yesterday, the bombardment of Fort Sumter, so long and anxiously expected, has at length become a fact accomplished. The restless activity of the night before was gradually worn down, the citizens who had thronged the battery through the night, anxious and weary, had sought their homes, the Mounted Guard which had kept watch and ward over the city, with the first grey steak of morning were preparing to retire, when two guns in quick succession from Fort Johnson announced the opening of the drama.

Upon that signal, the circle of batteries with which the grim fortress of Fort Sumter is beleaguered opened fire. The outline of this great volcanic crater was illuminated with a line of twinkling lights; the clustering shells illuminated the sky above it; the balls clattered thick as hail upon its sides; our citizens aroused to forgetfulness of their fatigue through many weary hours, rushed again to the points of observation; and so, at the break of day, amidst the bursting of bombs, and the roaring of ordnance, and before thousands of spectators, whose homes, and liberties, and lives were at stake, was enacted this first great scene in the opening drama of what, it is presumed, will be a most momentous military act. It may be a drama of single act. The madness which inspires it may depart with this single paroxysm. It is certain that the people of the North have rankling at their hearts no sense of wrong to be avenged; and exhibiting to those who expect power to reconstruct the shattered Union, its utter inadequacy to accomplish a single step in that direction, the Administration of the old Government may abandon at once and forever its vain and visionary hope of forcible control over the Confederate States. But it may not be so; they may persist still longer in assertions of their power, and if so, they will arouse an independent spirit in the South, which will exact a merciless and fearful retribution.

There were several circumstances, however, developed by the day’s experience which it is important to notice.

Fort Moultrie and it’s garrison engaged in the bombardment of Fort Sumter. (Library of Congress)

It affords us infinite pleasure to record that Fort Moultrie has fully sustained the prestige of its glorious name. It fired very nearly ever gun for gun with Fort Sumter. We counted the guns from eleven to twelve o’clock, and found them to be 42 to 46, while the advantage was unquestionably upon the side of Fort Moultrie. In that fort not a gun was dismounted, not a wound received, not the slightest permanent injury sustained by any of its defences, while every ball from Fort Moultrie left its mark upon Fort Sumter. Many of its shells were dropped into that fort, and Lieut. John Mitchel, the worthy son of that patriot sire, who has so nobly vindicated the cause of the South, has the honor of dismounting two of its parapet guns by a single shot from one of the Columbiads, which at the time he and the office of directing.
Edmund Ruffin, Southern patriot,
serving as a volunteer at Charleston
during the bombardment.
(Library of Congress)
The famous iron batteries – the one at Cummings’ Point – named for Mr. C.H. Stevens, the inventor, and the celebrated Floating Battery, constructed under the direction of Capt. Hamilton, have fully vindicated the correctness of their conception. Shot after shot fell upon them and glanced harmless away, while from their favorable position their shots fell with effect upon Fort Sumter, and the south-east pancopee, under the fire of the Stevens’ battery, at nightfall, if not actually breached, was badly damaged. At this battery the honor of firing the first gun was accorded to the venerable EDMUND RUFFIN, of Virginia, who marched to the rendezvous at the sound of the alarm on Monday night, and who, when asked by some person who did not know him, to what company he belonged, replied, “to that in which there is a vacancy.”

It was vain to attempt an exhibition of the enthusiasm and fearless intrepidity of our citizens in every department of this eventful day. Boats passed from post to post without the slightest hesitation under the guns of Fort Sumter, and with high and low, old and young, rich and poor, in uniform or without, the common wish and constant effort was to reach the posts of action; and amid a bombardment resisted with the most consummate skill and perseverance, and with the most efficient appliances military art and science, it is a most remarkable circumstance, and one which exhibits the infinite good-goodness of an overruling Providence, that, so far as we have been able to learn from the most careful inquiry, not the slightest injury has been sustained by the defenders of their country.

It may be added, as an incident that contributed no little interest to the action of the day, that from early in the forenoon three vessels-of-war, two of them supposed to be the Harriet Lane and Pawnee, lay just beyond the bar, inactive spectators of the contest. Whether they will attempt to enter during the night and encounter the records of a bloody issue in our next.

Fort Sumter did not return the fire of our batteries for over two hours, and ceased firing at seven o’clock, p.m., though our men continued to the hour of our going to press.

Charleston civilians watching the bombardment of Fort Sumter.
(National Park Service)

Sunday, April 10, 2011


Review of the volunteer troops in Fort Moultrie, on Sullivan's Island,
Charleston Harbor, S.C., in the presence of Mrs. Pickens and Miss Pickens,
 the wife and daughter of the governor of South Carolina. Frank Leslies'
Illustrated Newspaper. (Library of Congress)

The Charleston Mercury
Thursday, April 11, 1861


     Impending, momently expected battle, is the culmination of years of steadily increasing encroachment of the North upon the South - of compromising, sentimental generosity, and weak acquiescence on the part of the South. Strengthened and aggrandized by the partial action of the Central Government, the North is swollen with pride and drunk insolence. Overrating her power and resources, she undervalues and despised the patient, long suffering, much-abused, hated South. Clothed with authority, Northern sectionalism exults in the idea of humiliating and subduing those who would legitimately escape the consequences of its enthronement. The South, in armed and organized resistance, stands ready to make good her independence at the cost of blood and treasure. The two sections confront each other in positive, palpable hostility. By the gradual process of unchecked, unsettled disagreement between the sections, the respect of the North for the South has given place to disesteem, commendation to disparagement, kindly actions to outrages and murders, and amity to the interchange of the cannon and rifle-ball. There is now no common interest, sympathy, or hope. Direct antagonism has sprung up and is now so developed, as must lead, we trust, to an eternal separation of our destinies. Fundamental differences exist. No political conjunction can ever repress. No Lethean waters can ever obliterate from memory the deeds which they are about to inaugurate here. Coercion-invasion-subjugation, are the issues forced upon us. And "Resistance to tyranny is obedience to God!" The North needs proof of the earnestness of our intentions and our manhood. Experience shall be their teacher. Let them learn.

Wednesday, April 6, 2011

150-years-ago -- Situation in Pensacola Tense

The Richmond Daily Dispatch
April 6, 1861

Fort Pickens, Pensacola Harbor.
(Library of Congress)
From Pensacola.

     A correspondent of the New York Times, writing from on board the United States shipfrigate Sabine, off Pensacola Bar, the 25th ult., says:

     About ten days ago Major-General Bragg who is in command at this place,) saw fit to stop all communication between us and the shore, and Captain O'Hara, of Fort McRae, sent us word that if the Wyandotte did not keep a little further off he would fire into her. Captain Adams, wishing to a void a collision with these fools, keeps himself and us on board ship. Our supplies have been cut off from Mobile, and the New Orleans steamer, in passing in and out of the harbor, avoids our boarding boat, so you see we are hard up for news of any kind.
     Capt. Adams addressed a letter to Welles, Secretary of the Treasury, last Tuesday and in it told him that starvation stared us in the face, and unless we heard from him or received relief in ten days from date, he would use his own discretion about leaving this place. We are all on half rations. We have plenty of money, but of what use is that to us now. Three days ago we transferred from the Brooklyn to this ship 82 troops, and sent her to Key West and Havana for supplies.
     We expect her back in a few days. In the meantime they may attack Fort Pickens, and we have got to wade through about 3,000 bayonets to reinforce the fort, with masked batteries playing on us from all quarters, in conjunction with McRae and Barrancas. Is it not a pleasant picture to look upon? You must know there is an armistice in existence between Bragg and Adams. Bragg will not attack Pickens unless we attempt to reinforce it. We see troops going in nearly every day from New Orleans, Mobile, and other places, and can see them at work erecting sand-bag batteries, &c., and here we are cooped up like a lot of chickens, waiting for the Administration to do something. They have neglected us shamefully at Washington. They do not answer our communications. They do not send us anything to eat, and yet expect a ship like ours, which has been out over her time, with a broken-down and worn-out crew, and an old tub like the St. Louis, to do all their fighting in Southern waters, while vessels not yet three months in commission are rolling in clover off New York Battery.--Everybody in our ship is disheartened, and no wonder. You do not know one-tenth part of what we have suffered lately. They say the darkest hour of the night is just before the break of day; it is pitch dark with us just about this time.
     Three nights ago we heard the booming of cannon, and saw lights passing and repassing on shore, We beat to quarters, called "All hands out boats," mustered our companies, and were all ready to go over the side, when the little Wyandotte came steaming out to let us know it was a false alarm. If I live a hundred years I shall never forget the feelings I had when I was loading my revolvers. We were all busy with our own thoughts, I can assure you, and for about ten minutes hardly anything was heard save the tick, tick, of a Colt, or the dull thud of a rifle ramrod. We did all our little valuables up, and directed them each with a letter for our friends at home, in case anything disagreeable might happen to us while attempting to reach the fort.
     We have on board now nearly six hundred men, with grub enough to last about ten or twelve days longer. We have about thirty days water on board. We bought most of that here before communication was stopped, at the rate of six cents per gallon. All our fish lines are in requisition every day, but sometimes the     fish even secede.

Friday, April 1, 2011


The Charleston Mercury
April 1, 1861


Gen. Beauregard led a tour of
Charleston Harbor for dignitaries.
     Saturday last was an occasion that will long be remembered by our troops at the various posts in the harbor, as well as by the large number of distinguished gentlemen whose visit to the fortifications formed the chief incident of the day. Shortly after nine o'clock the members of the State Convention, and a few others who had been invited to accompany them, repaired to the Southern Wharf, where the commodious steamers Carolina, Capt. Lockwood, and General Clinch, Capt. Relyear, were in readiness to receive them. At ten o'clock the lines were cast off and the boats, with the State and Confederate colors streaming fore and aft, moved from the wharf to the inspiriting strains of "Dixie's Land," from the Palmetto Band, stationed on the forward deck of the Clinch. . . .
     The company who, by the invitation of Gen. Beauregard, participated in the excursion, must have numbered several hundred. . . .Gen. Beauregard, in undress uniform, was aboard the Carolina, chatting socially in the groups that filled the cabins, and pointing out to those whom the scene was a new one, principal points of interest.
      The steamers first ran over close to the James' Island shore, to give the company a view of the village and earthworks at Fort Johnson. As the three guns and mortar batteries ereceted at this point were the first of the works visited, they were of course viewed with greater curiosity, and spy-glasses of every variety, from the long and weatherbeaten marine glass to the delicate lorgnettes of the ladies, were brought into requisition to get a better look at the grim embrasures of the gun battery and the immense mound which protects the mortars. . . .
          On reaching the wharf, we encountered the picquet guard of the First Rifle Regiment, under command of Lieut. Heyward. . . . The stalwart gunners ( who belong to the regular army of the State, and who are as fine a body of soldiers as it is possible to find) were all at their respective batteries, and went through the manual of heavy artillery with remarkable precision. The quarters, the magazine, the bomb-proofs, and the furnace, at which several 8-inch shot were brought to a bright red heat, eminently suggestive of unpleasant results, all came in for a share of attention; . . .
The Charleston Zouave Cadets were among the troops
defending Charleston Harbor in 1861,
     Once more aboard the staunch boats, we steamed away down the Maffit Channel to the music of the "Marsellaise." As we came opposite to Fort Moultrie, the flash and white cloud from the embrasure, followed by the loud, by way of salute, had re-commenced. The cannonading was continued for several minutes. . . When opposite the five-gun battery, garrisoned for the last six weeks by the Vigilant Rifles, or rather the Vigilant Artillery (for they are good at either service), Capt. Tupper saluted with his battery. . . The detachment of the Charleston Light Dragoons, on out-post duty, were also under arms, and formed in line on the beach; they, too, fired a feu-de-joie from their revolvers. . . .
     . . . The scene upon the Island was indeed a beautiful one. The long row range of sandhills was covered with sentries, and squads of troops engaged in the drill. At short intervals the various posts were indicated by the flags streaming over them.  Some of these banners were extemporaneous patterns, but all, of what ever size or hue, bore the honored device of the Palmetto. . . .
     Meantime a very sumptuous and plentiful collation had been served up in the lower cabins of the steamers. The keen breeze and the trop over Sullivan's Island had been sufficient to give a zest to the appetites of the party, and the rapidity with which the edibles (and drinkables, too) disappeared, was only equalled by the agility with which the corps of sable caterers marshalled up fresh supplies. . . .
     This unique work. . .was built under the direction of Major P.F. Stevens, Superintendent of the Citadel Academy, and attracts attention, chiefly owing to its simple but massive construction. . .The Columbiad guns, with which this novel battery is equipped, bear on the south wall of Sumter, the line of fire being at an angle of about thirty-five degrees. . . .
     Passing on to the other batteries, we could not but marvel at the engineering skill displayed in the construction of these formidable works. We were soon roused from our admiration of these triumphs of military engineering by the report of one of the ten-inch mortars, which showed that the day's practice at the batteries had begun.
     . . .One after another the mortars and heavy guns sent their shot and shell flying over the waters of the harbor. To a large majority of the spectators the flight and bursting of shell was something novel, and the scene was altogether grand and impressive. . .Among those who fired the mortars was ex-Senator Chesnut, and we heard one of the officers say that his shot was quite a creditable one. . . .
     After this splendid exhibition of gunnery, the visitors continued their walk a few hundred yards to withness the review of the First Regiment of Volunteers, Col. Maxcy Gregg, commander. They were drawn up on the beach in two ranks, and as soon as General Jamison and General Beauregard took their position opposite the centre, Col. Gregg ordered the regiment to prepare to review; the ranks were opened and aligned; officers stepped to the front; the band beat off; and the scene reminded us of a similar occasion previous to the departure of the Palmetto regiment for Mexico. Nearly 1000 men were under arms. . . .
     By this time the sun was fast sinking, and the party hurried back from their rambles, and bidding good bye to the gallant men at the trneches, embarked for the city. On our way we passed close under the walls of Fort Sumter, upon which nearly all of Major Anderson's garrison must have been collected. In a short time we had reached the Southern wharf, and at six o'clock we stepped ashore, while the band played away at "Dixie" quite as vigorously as if they had never stopped since we started in the morning.