Tuesday, March 28, 2023

Today in History (general history)/ On This Day in Confederate History/ Confederate General Birthdays, March 28.

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1862: The major fighting in the Battle of Glorieta Pass, N.M. occurs on this third day of the battle. In the morning, the Confederates and the Federals both decide to launch attacks. Federal Lt Col. J.P. Slough splits his forces and detaches Maj. Chivington's command is to make a flank attack while he is attacking the rebels from the front. Lt. Col. W.R. Scurry decides to attack the Federals in a frontal assault, but a small part of his command is detached to guard the supply place at Johnson's Ranch with one artillery piece. He is expecting reinforcements under Col. Tom Green. The two armies clash along the Glorietta River near Pigeon's Ranch and the Federals attack first. Scurry counterattacked and outflanked the Federals, but Texan Maj. John Shropshire is killed in the action and Texan Maj. Henry Raguet is mortally wounded. By the end of the day, Slough retreats to Kozloski's Ranch with the Confederate winning that phase of the battle. However, Maj. Chivington didn't flank the Confederates as ordered but attacks the small detachment at Johnson's Ranch and quickly overwhelms it, looting and destroying or capturing the vital Confederate supplies and livestock, including the artillery piece and some of the men. That phase is won by the Federals. The Confederates lost 222 men killed, wounded, and captured or missing. The Federal casualty total is 147.

1864: Confederate Maj. Gen. Richard Taylor on this day in the Red River Campaign gets positive word that Banks' Federal juggernaut has reached Cotile Landing just south of Natchitoches. Hoping to defend Natchitoches, but still waiting for Brig. Gen. Tom Green's Texas Cavalry Division, Taylor reluctantly orders his command to retreat to Pleasant Hill in Northwest Louisiana. The men, especially the Louisianians are anxious to stop the looting and burning of their state. Federal Brig. Gen. Albert Lee's cavalry is in the lead, followed by Maj. Gen. A.J. Smith's detachment from Vicksburg, and the elements of the 19th Army Corps and other units. The Federal flotilla brings added punch to the Northern offensive.

1865: Lt. Gen. Nathan Bedford Forrest in Alabama scrambles to set up an effective defense against Wilson's Raiders which are headed for the major Confederate base at Selma. But the Federal cavalry is moving fast and Forrest has few men with little hope of stopping them. 


Lieutenant General Wade Hampton III was born this day in 1818 in Charleston, South Carolina. A wealthy prewar planter and politician in South Carolina, Hampton was a citizen soldier who rose to the second-highest rank of generals in the War For Southern Independence. He organized Hampton's Legion early in the war, took part in the First Battle of Manassas, and is wounded, and fought in most of the major campaigns and battles of the Army of Northern Virginia, rising to the level of lieutenant general and commanding the cavalry of the army. He finished the war with Gen. Joseph E. Johnston's Army of Tennessee in North Carolina in 1865. In the post-war years, he was a major political figure in South Carolina fighting Reconstruction and serving as governor of the state. He died April 11, 1902, and is buried in Trinity Cathedral Churchyard, Charleston, in S.C.

Lt. Gen. Wade Hampton III


Brigadier General Thomas Taylor Munford was born on this day in 1831 in Richmond, Virginia. He was an 1852 graduate of the Virginia Military Institute and in the War for Southern Independence rose to the rank of brigadier general. His battles were First Manassas, Cross  Keys, White Oak Swamp, Second Manassas, Mile Hill, South Mountain, Gettysburg, Bristoe, Wapping Heights, Five Forks, High Bridge, and Sayler's Creek. Following the war, he worked as a cotton planter in Alabama and served as president of the Virginia Military Institute Board of  Visitors. He died Feb. 27, 1918, in Uniontown, Alabama and was buried in Spring Hill Cemetery in Lynchburg, Va.

Brig. Gen. Thomas T. Munford

Monday, March 27, 2023

Today in History (general history)/ On This Day in Confederate History/ Confederate General Birthdays, March 27.

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1862: The Battle of Glorieta Pass, N.M. enters its second day. The battle occurs between mainly the Federal 1st and 2nd Colorado Infantry, 2nd New Mexico Infantry, and the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd Texas Cavalry regiments under the command of Col. John P. Slough and Maj. John M. Chivington, with two artillery batteries. The Confederates had on hand Lt. Col. Charles L. Pyron's 2nd Texas Mounted infantry and five companies of the 5th Texas Mounted Rifles under Maj. John S. Shropshire. He was joined that afternoon by Lt. Col. William Read Scurry's nine companies of the 4th Texas Mounted Rifles under Maj. Henry Raguet and five companies of the 7th Texas Mounted Rifles under Maj. Powhatan Jordan, all from Sibley's Texas Brigade. The Confederates also had a total of five artillery pieces. No fighting occurs on this day.

Lt. Col. Charles L. Pyron
2nd Bn.Texas Mounted Rifles

Maj. John Shropshire, 5th Texas Mounted Rifles
Killed in Action

Maj. Henry Raguet
4th Texas Cavalry (Mounted Rifles)
Mortally Wounded
(Lawrence T. Jones II Texas Photographs, 
DeGloyer Library, Central University Libraries, 
Southern Methodist University)

1864: Maj. Gen. Richard Taylor with Brig. Gen. Alfred Mouton's fine infantry division at Cloutierville, La., is still anxiously awaiting the arrival of Brig. Gen. Tom Green's Texas cavalry division which is 20 miles south of Natchitoches. The Federal juggernaut is reported approaching Monett's Ferry. It is Easter Sunday.

1865: After the failure of the Confederate assault on Fort Stedman, the Siege of Petersburg, Va. enters its final phase of maneuvering. The Federals under General Grant have 114,335 men, and General Lee has 56,000 men of all arms.



Sunday, March 26, 2023

Today in History (general history)/ On This Day in Confederate History/ Confederate General Birthdays, March 26.

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1862: The first day of the Battle of Glorieta Pass begins in New Mexico when Brig. Gen. Henry Hopkins Sibley's Texas Cavalry Brigade with 1,100 gray-clad troopers clashes with Federal forces numbering 1,300 bluecoats under Col. John Potts Slough. The day sees a skirmish at Apache Canyon between the Northern and Southern forces as the Confederates pushed the Federals back to Glorieta Pass.
The Battle of Glorieta Pass, Roy Andersen
(National Park Service)

1864: Brig. Gen. A.L. Lee's Federal cavalry arrived at Henderson Hill as it hunts for the main Confederate Army under Maj. Gen. Richard Taylor in western Louisiana. Brigadier General Tom Green's crack Texas cavalry is still pushing across the Sabine River to join forces with Taylor for the coming clash between the Blue and the Gray.
Maj. Gen. Richard Taylor

1865: Spanish Fort defense complex at Mobile, Alabama under Brig. Gen. Randall L. Gibson of Louisiana with just 2,500 men in Fort Huger, Fort Tracey, Fort McDermott, Fort Alexis, Red Fort, and Old Spanish Forts get ready for the arrival of Maj. Gen. E.R.S. Canby's massive army of 30,000 men. Though vastly outnumbered, the Confederates are determined to hold out as long as they can.
Brig. Gen. Randall L. Gibson



Saturday, March 25, 2023

Today in History, (general history)/ On This Day in Confederate History/ Confederate General Birthdays, March 25.

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1863: Confederates make it difficult for Federals to extricate their remaining boats and troops at the conclusion of the Steele's Bayou Expedition near Vicksburg, Miss. Confederates had slipped around Porter's flotilla and felled some trees in the rear, possibly cutting the flotilla off from the troops. Porter sent Sherman an appeal for help and he receives it. Reinforcements rush to the scene so Porter's flotilla can safely retreat.

1864: The Battle of Paducah, Kentucky takes place between Maj. Gen. Nathan Bedford Forrest with 3,000 troopers, and the Federal garrison there under the command of Col. Stephen G. Hicks, 650 men in Fort Anderson. The fort was also supported by two Federal gunboats on the Ohio River. Forrest occupied the town and demanded Hicks surrender his command, but the Federal commander refused. Forrest decided it would be too costly to assault the fort so he decided instead to take all the supplies and livestock he could and leave. But some of the Kentuckians in his command assaulted the fort on their own unsuccessfully. The Confederates suffered 90 casualties and the Federals 50.

1865: Confederates launch an attack on Fort Stedman at Petersburg. Maj. Gen. John Brown Gordon leads 10,000 Southern troops in a desperate attempt to break the siege. Defending the fort are some 14,898 Federals under Maj. Gen. John G. Parke. The Confederates attacked early and achieve surprise and occupy part of the fort. But when Federal reinforcements arrive, Gordon, with permission from General Robert E. Lee who was on the scene watching, withdraws the Southerners. Confederate casualties are 72 killed, 450 wounded, and 522 captured or missing. The Federals lost 600 killed, 2,400 wounded, and 1,000 captured or missing.
Col. Eugene Waggaman led the 
Consolidated Louisiana Brigade as
the tip of the spear, spearheading the
Confederate attack on Fort Stedman.


Major General William Thompson Martin was born on this day in 1823 in Glasgow, Kentucky. Prior to the war, he was a district attorney who opposed secession in Mississippi. During the war, he raised cavalry troops and served as a colonel under Maj. Gen. J.E.B. Stuart. He was promoted to brigadier general in January 1863. His battles included Williamsburg, Seven Pines, Stuart's Ride Around McClellan's Army, the Seven Days Battles, Second Manassas, Sharpsburg, Dumfries, and Occoquan. He was promoted to major general and transferred to the Army of Tennessee in 1863 and commanded a division under Maj. Gen. Fighting Joe Wheeler. He took part in Tullahoma Campaign, Chickamauga, Knoxville, and Atlanta, and then commanded the Northwest District of Mississippi. Following the war, he practiced in Mississippi and died March 16, 1910, in Natchez, Miss., and was buried in Natchez City Cemetery.

Maj. Gen. William T. Martin
Brigadier General Martin Witherspoon Gary was born on this day in 1831 in Cokesbury, South Carolina. Prior to the war, he practiced law at Edgefield, S.C., was elected to the state legislature in 1860, and supported secession. During the war, he started in 1861 as a captain in Hampton's Legion infantry and fought in the First Battle of Manassas. He rose to the command of a regiment and fought in various battles in Virginia before being transferred in 1863 to the Army of Tennessee. He was promoted to brigadier general and was transferred back to the Army of Northern Virginia and commanded a cavalry brigade. Gary refused to surrender at Appomattox and escorted President Davis with 200 cavalrymen to Greensboro, N.C., and left the army at that time. After the war, he practiced law in Edgefield, S.C. again and fought against Radical Republicans in his state. After Reconstruction, he was elected to the state senate until 1881 and moved to Cokesbury, S.C., and died there on April 9, 1881.

Brig. Gen. Martin W. Gary

Friday, March 24, 2023

Today in History (general history)/ On This Day in Confederate History/ Confederate general birthdays, March 24,

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1863: Confederate forces foil General Grant's efforts to bypass Vicksburg, Mississippi. Grant ordered Sherman to cease Steele's Bayou Expedition on this day. This was a Confederate victory in the Vicksburg Campaign.

1864: In Louisiana, while Maj. Gen. Richard Taylor is still waiting for reinforcements from Texas and Arkansas, Maj. Gen. Nathaniel Banks arrives in Alexandria and orders his still-gathering forces to begin their advance on Shreveport, the Confederate headquarters for the Trans-Mississippi Dept. Banks, however, is faced with the low water level of the Red River and orders to return Major Gen. A.J. Smith's 10,000 troops borrowed from Vicksburg, by April 15.

Col. Henry Gray was leading
Mouton's Brigade in the Red
River Campaign while Gen. Mouton
was leading the division consisting
of his and polignac's Texas brigades
of infantry. (Library of Congress)

1865: General Robert E. Lee plans to cut the Federal supply line and force Grant to constrict the Yankee siege line by launching an offensive at Fort Stedman, Petersburg, Va. The desperate assault will be launched by Maj. Gen. John Brown Gordon the next day.


Brig. Gen. William Henry Wallace was born on this day in 1827 in Laurens District, South Carolina. He was a pre-war planter, newspaperman, and politician who supported secession. During the war, he rose from private in the 18th South Carolina Infantry, to lieutenant, captain, lieutenant colonel, and then to brigadier general in 1864. His battles included the Second Battle of Manassas, Sharpsburg, the defense of Charleston, S.C., and the Siege of Petersburg, Va. He was disabled by the mine explosion there on July 30, 1864, called the Battle of the Crater. He finished the war with General Lee at Appomattox on April 9, 1865. Following the war, Wallace practiced law in South Carolina and returned to farming, and again served in the state legislature and as a circuit judge. He died March 21, 1901, at Union, S.C., and was buried in the Presbyterian Cemetery there.

Brig. Gen. William H. Wallace

Thursday, March 23, 2023

Today in History (general history)/ On This Day in Confederate History/ Confederate General Birthdays, March 23.

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1862Maj. Gen. Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson's Army of the Valley, numbering about 4,200 men, battles a Federal division under the command of Col. Nathan Kimball, some 9,000 men, at the First Battle of Kernstown, Virginia. The division's leader, Brig. Gen. James Shields had been wounded the day before in a skirmish. After fighting from 11 o'clock in the morning to 4 o'clock in the afternoon, the Confederates were overwhelmed and retreated. The battle was a tactical defeat, but it was a strategic victory for the Confederates because it caused the Federals to reinforce the Shenandoah Valley and drew units away from the planned campaign against Richmond, Virginia. Losses for the Confederates were 80 killed, 375 wounded, and 263 captured or missing. The Federals lost 118 killed, 450 wounded, and 22 captured or missing.

Maj. Gen T.H. "Stonewall" Jackson

1863: Confederate batteries at Warrenton, Mississippi five miles south of Vicksburg, engage in an artillery duel with the U.S.S. Hartford and the U.S.S. Albatross. The two warships had been the only two to successfully run the big guns at Port Hudson, La. March 14, 1863.


Brigadier General Edward Lloyd Thomas was born on this day in 1825 in Clarke County, Georgia. Thomas received some military experience in the Mexican-American War when he served as a second lieutenant in a mounted company Georgia independent volunteers from May 1847 to August 1848. During the war for Southern Independence, Thomas became the colonel of the 35th Georgia Infantry in the Army of Northern Virginia. When his brigade commander resigned, Thomas assumed command of the brigade. He was promoted to brigadier general on Nov. 1, 1862. His battles included the Battle of Beaver Dam Creek, Second Manassas, Sharpsburg, Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville, Gettysburg, the Overland Campaign, the Siege of Petersburg, and the Appomattox Campaign. Following the war, Thomas farmed in Newton County, Georgia, and in 1885 President Grover Cleveland made him an agent in the Land Bureau in Kansas, then an Indian Agent in the Indian Territory, which became Oklahoma. Thomas died March 8, 1898, in South McAlester, Indian Territory. He was buried in Kiowa, Oklahoma.

Brig. Gen. Edward L. Thomas

Wednesday, March 22, 2023

Today in History (general history)/ On This Day in Confederate History/ Confederate General Birthdays, March 22.

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1862: Gen. Stonewall Jackson in the Shenandoah Valley Campaign received orders from Gen. Joseph E. Johnston that he was to not let Gen. Nathaniel Banks' Federals leave the valley. Jackson's army marches 22 miles on this day to catch the retreating Yankees. Jackson's cavalry, under Col. Turner Ashby, fights a skirmish with the Federals under Maj. Gen. James Shields, who is wounded in the engagement.

Lt. Gen. T.J. "Stonewall Jackson
(Click on the image to enlarge)

1863: More fighting continues in the vicinity of Murfreesboro, Tenn. between the blue and the gray. In Kentucky, Brig. Gen. John Hunt Morgan and Brig. Gen. John Pegram both continue their raids in Kentucky. 

1865: Lt. Gen. Nathan Bedford Forrest has been dispatched to stop the Federal cavalry raid of Brig. Gen. James H. Wilson, which began on this day with 13,480 troopers. But the Confederates only had some 5,000 men poorly equipped and widely scattered to stop them.


General Braxton Bragg was born on this day in 1817 in Warrenton, North Carolina. He graduated from West Point in 1837 ranking fifth out of 50 graduates in the class. In his U.S. Army career, he served in the Seminole War and the Mexican War where he performed brilliantly commanding an artillery battery. Bragg resigned from the army effective Jan. 3, 1855, and became a sugar cane planter in southeast Louisiana. He was also active politically and a major general in the Louisiana militia. On orders from the governor, he led 500 state militia in a non-violent takeover of the U.S. Arsenal in Baton Rouge on Jan. 11, 1861. With the formation of the Confederacy, he became a brigadier general in the Confederate and was quickly promoted to major general and led a corps in the Battle of Shiloh. He took command of what would be renamed the Army of Tennessee. His abrasive personality and martinet treatment of the men alienated many of his subordinate generals and enlisted men. He led the army in the battles of Perryville, Murfreesboro, Tullahoma, Chickamauga, and Missionary Ridge, after which he resigned his command. At the end of the war, he again led troops in defeats at Second Fort Fisher, Wyse Fork, and Bentonville. He had a wide range of jobs after the war and finally moved to Texas and died there in Galveston on Sept. 27, 1876, and was buried in Magnolia Cemetery in Mobile, Alabama.

Gen. Braxton Bragg

Major General William Henry Chase Whiting was born on this day in Biloxi, Mississippi. He graduated first in his class at West Point in 1845. He had a variety of assignments as an engineer in the army but missed service in the Mexican American War. Whiting resigned from the U.S. Army on Feb. 20, 1861, joined the Confederate Army engineer serving under General Beauregard at Charleston, S.C. improving defenses there, and was promoted to brigadier general. He also served as the chief engineer on the staffs of other generals and was assigned to command a division in Peninsula Campaign and was made a wing commander at Seven Pines on May 31, June 1, 1862. Whiting led his division at Gaines' Mill, Malvern Hill, and was given command of the District of Wilmington, North Carolina. Whiting was wounded in the thigh and captured at the Second Battle of Fort Fisher, N.C. He died a prisoner of war on March 10, 1865, of dysentery at Fort Columbus on Governors Island, New York. 

Maj. Gen. William H.C. Whiting

Brigadier General William Wirt Adams was born on this day in 1819 in Frankfort, Kentucky. Prior to the war, he gained a little military experience when he joined the army in 1839 in the Republic of Texas as a private. He was promoted captain and adjutant of a regiment and took part in a campaign against Indians in northeast Texas. Adams moved back to Mississippi and became a banker and was elected to two terms in the Mississippi legislature. In the War For Southern Independence, he became a brigadier general and led a cavalry brigade. His battles included Shiloh, Corinth, Iuka, Hatchie's Bridge, Raymond, Champion Hill, Vicksburg, Port Hudson, and Meridian. He was paroled at Gainesville, Alabama, on May 12, 1865. Following the war, he had a variety of jobs in Mississippi, including as a revenue agent, and postmaster. He was killed May 1, 1888, in Jackson, Miss. in a gun battle with a newspaper editor who had criticized him, and he also killed the editor. Adams was buried in Greenwood Cemetery in Jackson.

Brig. Gen. William W. Adams

Brigadier General Francis Asbury Shoup was born on this day in 1834 in Laurel, Indiana. He graduated from West Point in 1855, fifteenth in his class of 34 cadets. He served in the Seminole War and resigned from the army on Jan. 10, 1860, and settled in Indianapolis, Ind. where he was a lawyer and commanded the Indianapolis Zouave militia. He moved to St, Augustine, Florida in 1860 to continue his legal career. With the coming of the war, his Southern sympathies led him into the Confederate Army and he served as chief of artillery under Maj. Gen. William J. Hardee at the Battle of Shiloh. Shoup was promoted to brigadier general on Sept. 12, 1862, and he commanded a division at the Battle of Prairie Grove. Shoup commanded a Louisiana brigade at the Siege of Vicksburg, being captured along with the garrison at the end. After being exchanged, he served in the Battle of Atlanta and became the chief of staff for General John Bell Hood in the Army of Tennessee. Following the war, Shoup was a professor at the University of Mississippi and the University of the South. Shoup also became an Episcopal rector. He died Sept. 4, 1896, in Columbia, Tenn., and was buried at the University of the South.

Brig. Gen. Francis A. Shoup