Saturday, September 17, 2016

BATTLE OF SHARPSBURG, Md. Sept. 17, 1862 AMERICA'S BLOODIEST DAY

[Article excerpted from Confederate States Rangers by Michael Dan Jones]

Confederate dead along the Hagerstown Pike fence at the Battle of Sharpsburg.
The Bloodiest Day, September 17, 1862
      The fatigued men of the Confederate States Rangers got little rest the night before the battle. Sporadic skirmishing throughout the night made sleep very difficult. The two advance brigades of General J.R. Jones’ division  were those of his own brigade, under Colonel Bradley Johnson and the Stonewall Brigade under Colonel A.J. Grigsby—both on the west side of the fence. Behind them were Captain J.B. Brockenbrough’s Baltimore battery and in support of the artillery were Starke’s and Taliaferro’s brigades. On the east side of the fence in the field was  Lawton’s (Ewell’s) division. To the south of Stonewall Jackson’s position were Longstreet’s divisions. About 12,000 Federals were massed for the assault on Jackson’s line on the Confederate left. Hooker’s corps was massed to the north of the North woods. Their immediate target was the Dunker Church on the west side of the Hagerstown Pike, just south of where Starke’s brigade was located in the West Woods.
The battle started shortly before 6 o’clock with a massive artillery barrage cutting across the Confederate positions. The Confederate artillery returned fire but was heavily outgunned. The advance brigades of Jones’ and Lawton’s divisions absorbed the first blows and returned fire until overwhelmed. General Jones was stunned by an overhead artillery burst and had to be removed from the field. General Starke assumed the command of the division, and with his sword and battle flag in hand, rallied the retreating Confederates. But Starke was soon pierced by three bullets through the body and fell from his horse, dead. Colonel Grigsby then took command of the division. The 1st  Louisiana Brigade, under Brigadier General Harry T. Hayes, was part of Lawton’s division and took part in the fighting in the Miller Cornfield east of the pike. The brigade had only 550 men going into the battle and suffered heavy losses, 323, before it was relieved by Hood’s Texas Brigade.
As the battle rolled back to where Starke’s brigade was located, Colonel Stafford, who assumed command of the brigade when Starke was called upon to replace the wounded General Jones, received orders at 7 o’clock to move out of the woods in a counterattack on the advancing Federals. As soon as they emerged from the woods, they found themselves practically “face-to-face” with the enemy in close musket range. They charged through the murderous shower of bullets coming their way but found it all but impossible to get any further  than the sturdy rail fence along the Hagerstown Pike. They were battling mainly, again, with Gibbon’s “Iron Brigade” of Abner Doubleday’s division.  These were the same Mid-Westerners with whom they fought at Brawner’s Farm at the Second Battle of Manassas. The Iron Brigade was reinforced in the firefight by the 2nd U.S. Sharpshooters, 14th Brooklyn and Battery B, 4th U.S. Artillery. The men of both sides loaded and fired at a blistering rate.
       Colonel Edmund Pendleton of the 15th Louisiana, said in his report on the battle, “The men, being formed along this fence, kept up an accurate and well-sustained fire, which visibly told upon the enemy’s ranks; and, although we suffered greatly, as well from musketry in front as from a battery on our left, which enfiladed us with grape and canister, still, not a man was seen to flinch from the conflict. By some mistake or misapprehension, the troops which were intended, as I have since been informed, to support us on the left, failed to get in position as early as was expected, and, our left being unprotected, we were outflanked, when the order to retire was given and obeyed, the men withdrawing in tolerable order, and fighting as they fell back.” Stafford reformed the men in the woods. Determined to counterattack the enemy, Stafford gave the order to charge and the Louisianians, determined to “win or die,” then hurled themselves against the exulting Yankees and drove them from the field. “The enemy being thus completely repulsed  on his right, did not again offer to renew the combat on that portion of his lines during the day,” Pendleton said.
           Captain Monier, writing of the latter action, noted in his journal that at 10:30 o’clock that morning the brigade was marched by the left flank to support Stuart’s cavalry. They fell into the right of Stuart where the enemy was massing and held firm, then drove the blue tide back. The brigade settled in while the battle moved on south of them. Later in the day, however, Starke’s brigade was called upon to support a Confederate battery and at that time Stafford received a wound to the foot and had to withdraw. Pendleton then stepped up to command the brigade. Also wounded was Colonel J.M Williams of the 2nd Louisiana regiment, Lieutenant Colonel Michael Nolan of the 1st Louisiana and Pendleton received a minor wound to the ankle. Lieutenant Colonel Gaston Coppens of the 1st Louisiana Zouave Battalion was killed in action. Captain Henry Monier of the 10th Louisiana was the only regimental commander who came through the battle unscathed.
          Among the severely wounded enlisted men left at the rail fence on the Hagerstown Pike was Private Armelin Linscomb, spelled Lincicome in his military records, of Company K, Confederate States Rangers. He was disabled and probably knocked out and left for dead. In fact, Lieutenant Seton, in a letter written after the battle, listed Linscomb among the dead. His plight was similar to many of the Confederate prisoners. He had been disabled by a gunshot wound to the neck. Since he was unable to read and write and probably had a thick Louisiana French accent, his Yankee
captors were unable to  correctly spell his name. The 20-year-old farm boy was from Vermilion Parish, deep in South Louisiana’s Cajun country. Up until the time of his wounding, he was always present for duty in the ranks and was there for every battle up to Sharpsburg. He was first brought to the U.S.A. General Hospital in Frederick, Maryland where his medical complaint was listed as “Vulnus Sclopeticum” which was an archaic Latin medical term for gunshot wound. He was quickly paroled, but because of his medical condition was transferred to the hospital at Fort McHenry in Baltimore. He was then sent to Fort Monroe to the hospital there and on November 12, 1862, was transferred to City Point for exchange. Linscomb never rejoined his unit and the last record in his file was made March 22, 1865 at Petersburg, Virginia. It just noted he was absent due to a gunshot wound to the neck. The records are silent on where he was, but most likely he spent the rest of his time in  army in  hospitals. He did survive the war and eventually recovered from his wound
          Another member of the Confederate States Rangers, Private Asa Ryan, was also severely wounded in the battle. He was  crouching down at the fence on the Hagerstown Pike when he saw men on either side of him shot down. Then a bullet slammed into his left leg above the knee. Ryan went down also and was left behind when the Federals overran his position. A rugged 26-years-old carpenter from Lake Charles, Louisiana, Ryan, like Linscomb, was present for every battle up to Sharpsburg. His leg was amputated and he was sent to the prisoner of war camp at Fort McHenry in Baltimore. Ryan wasn’t a prisoner for long. He was paroled and exchanged at Aiken’s Landing, Virginia. Ryan was the older brother of Joseph Lawrence Ryan who was wounded at Second Manassas.
Other casualties in Company K at Sharpsburg included corporals Joseph Auge Jr., James McKinney, and Private Justice Jackson, all killed in action; and also wounded privates Easton Hoffpauir, Dupre Marcantel, in the heel and disabled, and Raphael Foreman.
Hood’s Counterattack
General Hood had been alerted by Lawton that he would be needing assistance as soon as possible. Hood’s division was part of Longstreet’s corps. As he had done many times, Hood called upon his old command, the Texas Brigade made up of the 1st, 4th and 5th Texas, along with the 18th Georgia and the South Carolina infantry companies of Hampton’s Legion, to lead the counterattack. They were followed by Brigadier General Evander Law’s brigade. Hood’s men had been cooking breakfast when they were notified to fall in. They did so but were as mad as hornets. Hood said the battle had been raging with great fury and he noted, “It was here that I witnessed the most terrible clash of arms, by far, that has occurred during the war.” At about 7 o’clock, the Texas Brigade clashed with the Federal Iron Brigade under Gibbon, which had already suffered heavily in its battles with the divisions of J.R. Jones and Lawton. The Federals were taken by surprise by the ferocity of the counterattack and fell back in disorder. Major Rufus Dawes of the 6th Wisconsin said the attackers volley went through his regiment like a “scythe.” They retreated through the Miller Cornfield with the Texans and others on their heels. Hood’s men stretched out from the Cornfield to the East Woods. D.H. Hill’s Confederate division also came up to keep the momentum going.
          The Federals then staged their own counterattack with two brigades of Meade’s division. The Texans were caught in a crossfire with the 1st Texasbeing particularly hard hit. They lost 186 men out of 226 which was a casualty rate of 82.3 percent—a record high for the war. But Hooker’s assault was blunted and his corps lost 2,600 men out of 9,000 engaged, and it was only 7:30 o’clock. Joseph Mansfield’s 12th Corps fed in some 7,200 more men into this meat grinder. At 9:20 o’clock, fresh Federal troops were seen approaching from the east headed for the West Woods. These were men from John Sedgwick’s division of the 2nd U.S. Army Corps. Confederates in McLaw’s division countered this move and drove off the Federals within 20 minutes of savage fighting. The bluecoats retreated having suffered 2,200 casualties. It had become evident that  the Confederate left couldn’t be moved. Mansfield himself was among those dead on the field of battle. So far Lee had moved his divisions in the battle like a master chess player moving his pieces on a chess board. The battle would now move to the center of the Confederate line at a sunken farm lane.
            Holding the Confederate center were 6,000 men under generals George B. Anderson, Robert Rodes and R.H. Anderson. They were attacked by 8,000 men in two divisions from the 2nd U.S. Corps. First came the division of William French which was repulsed with great casualties on both sides. Then the division of Israel Green attacked and, following the death of General G.B. Anderson, the confused Confederates mistakenly  abandoned the sunken farm lane, now known as “Bloody Lane.” But astoundingly, McClellan didn’t follow up on this breakthrough. Instead, McClellan sent in his 12,000 man 12th U.S. Army Corps against the Confederate right, which was held by just 500 Georgians under Brigadier General Robert Toombs. Burnside’s focus was a bridge over Antietam Creek which negated a massive frontal assault. Instead, he sent individual brigades against the bridge, which was like a funnel, enabling the well concealed Georgians to repulse attacks for three hours. Then, at 1 o’clock, two regiments, the 51st New York and 51st Pennsylvania managed to get across the bridge and establish a line of battle on the Confederate side. Then, when Toombs saw he had also been outflanked to the right by the Federal division of I.P. Rodman, he retreated from the position leaving it in enemy hands.
            Burnside spent the next two hours building up his corps for a grand assault on the Confederate right. When he launched the attack, Toombs had only some 700 men to stop it. All seemed lost for the South because Lee couldn’t weaken the other parts of his line. But just then, A.P. Hill  dramatically came up with 3,000 men in a nick of time. They had been on a forced march of 17 miles in seven hours from Harper’s Ferry, where they had been left behind to parole the Federal garrison that had been captured. Lee immediately sent Hill’s men in on Burnside’s left flank, crushing it and sending the Federals back over Antietam Creek. The day and the battle had been saved. The men of both sides settled in but Lee readjusted his line that night to a stronger position and waited for another attack the next day, September 18, but it never came. McClellan was waiting for more reinforcements. Lee, seeing it would be fatal for the Army of Northern Virginia to remain in that position, retreated across the Potomac that night. While the Federals held the battlefield and claimed a victory, it was a tactical
draw at a massive cost in human lives.
The Confederates lost 1,546 killed, 7,752 wounded and 1,018 missing for a total of 10,316 casualties. The Federals suffered 2,108 killed, 9,549 wounded and 753 missing for a total of 12,410 casualties. The overall total was 22,726 – the bloodiest day in American history. Starke’s (Stafford’s) brigade losses were—less Coppen’s battalion which never gave a report—81 killed, 189 wounded and 17 missing for a total of 287. The 10th Louisiana lost 24 killed, 34 wounded 19 missing for a total of 77. This figure is a revision from the Official Records, based on examination of individual service records for the 10th Louisiana. The other regiments in the brigade lost 71 total in the 1st Louisiana, 62 in the 2nd Louisiana, 82 in the 9th Louisiana and 15 in the 15th Louisiana. A few days after the battle, renowned photographer Mathew Brady sent Alexander Gardner to take pictures of the battlefield and the dead that still were unburied. The picture of the dead Confederates along the Hagerstown Pike were, in one of Gardner’s photographs, specifically identified as being Louisiana troops. Since that is where Starke’s brigade fought and most of the killed and wounded occurred, it is believed most of the bodies in the picture must be from that brigade. In addition, in his book Antietam: The Photographic Legacy of America’s Bloodiest Day, William A. Frassanito, notes that while it is impossible to know which specific Louisiana regiments to which those dead belong, he specifically mentions many of the dead of the 10th Louisiana being among the possibilities, , , ,


Friday, September 2, 2016

HISTORY AS IT HAPPENED -- Richmond Receives Word On Victory At Second Manassas

[Richmond Daily Dispatch, Sept. 2, 1862]
Battle of Manassas.
Gen. Robert E. Lee

Triumph of our forces.

      Our information is such as to give encouragement to the hope that the sacred soil of Virginia will soon be rescued from the hands land divested of the polluting tread, of the Yankee invader. The great battle of Saturday last, fought on the memorable and classic ground of Manassas, resulted in the overthrow of the combined armies of the Federal Government, with a loss that is perhaps unequalled in the annals of the present war. We write without particulars; but the dispatches received by the President, and now given to the public, warrants the belief that our triumph is complete and glorious, and that the Confederate army is probably to-day within hauling distance of the Federal capital.
     The first dispatch received yesterday morning represented that the enemy had made several attempts to break through our lines, which intercepted their retreat towards Alexandria, but were repulsed each time with heavy loss. No mention of the casualties on our side was made, except that Gens. Ewell and Trimble were badly wounded, but not mortally, and Gen. Taliaferro slightly wounded.--A large number of prisoners were said to have been captured by our troops. This fight occurred in the vicinity of Manassas Plains. The indefinite character of this dispatch created some anxiety, and although it was stated that the enemy had been repulsed, still some uneasiness was felt, and some apprehensions entertained, for the safety of the gallant corps that, to the public, seemed to be between the two armies of the foe. These apprehensions were dispelled, however, by the later and more authentic intelligence of the day.
     Late in the afternoon, a dispatch was received by the President from Gen. Lee, conveying information which left no grounds to question the glorious success of our arms. This dispatch stated that on Thursday Gen. Jackson's corps repulsed Gen. Pope; Gen. Longstreet repulsed McClellan on Friday, and that on Saturday Gen. Lee attacked the combined forces of McClellan and Pope, utterly routing them with immense loss. Our army, it was stated, was still pursuing them, but in what direction we did not learn. If it be true, as previously represented, that our forces had gained the rear of the enemy, and repulsed their attempts to recover their intercepted lines we do not understand by what route they are now endeavoring to effect their escape. Large supplies of valuable stores were captured, some of which were destroyed by our troops. Our loss is represented to be heavy in valuable officers, though no names are given.

Wednesday, August 31, 2016

HISTORY AS IT HAPPENED -- News Trickles In About Second Battle of Manassas, Va.

[The Richmond Daily Dispatch, Sept. 1, 1862]

     
Two rugged Confederates
(6th Plate Ambrotype, M.D. Joones Collection)
A member of Congress, who came down on the Central train yesterday afternoon says that the Baltimore Sun, of Thursday, had been received in the Valley, in which it was stated that our forces had captured at Manassas, on Wednesday, five trains of cars loaded with provisions, and that later on the same day five other trains, on board of which were some two thousand Yankee troops. This affair was commented upon by the Yankee press as very discreditable to their commander, and some harsh reflections as to his fitness for his position indulged.
     Our own account of this affair reports that a portion of our cavalry had advanced on the Orange and Alexandria railroad to Bull Run bridge, about five miles beyond Manassas, and having burned the bridge continued their advance to Dye's Station, where they concealed themselves, and arrested the approach of a number of trains of which they had previously received information. After the trains passed the concealed position of the cavalry the track was torn up behind them. When they reached the bridge, the officers on board finding that something was wrong, determined to return to Alexandria, but before backing far they found the track torn up, and their retreat effectually intercepted.--The cavalry then approached in superior numbers, and the enemy surrendered without firing a gun. The number of prisoners reported captured agrees with the statement of the Sun, being estimated at 2,000, together with all the officers, regimental and company, and a quantity of arms and ammunition which were being conveyed to Gen. Pope. After this brilliant affair the cavalry returned to Manassas, without sustaining the loss of a single man.
     Some fifteen hundred to two thousand Yankee prisoners were yesterday between Rapidan Station and Gordonsville, and may be expected in this city to-day. It is supposed that these are the prisoners captured at Dye's Station by our cavalry.

Tuesday, August 30, 2016

HISTORY AS IT HAPPENED--SECOND BATTLE OF MANASSAS, Va.

[Excerpted from the Richmond Daily Dispatch, Aug. 29, 1862]
From the Rappahannock — Occupation of Manassas Junction by our advance.
     The news from the line of the Rappahannock, though not so full and complete as we could desire, is nevertheless interesting and important. It is understood as perfectly reliable that the advance of our forces have reached Manassas Junction, where they captured some eight or ten heavy guns and an immense quantity of valuable stores.
Brig. Gen. Wm. E. Starke
2nd La. Brigade
Stonewall Jackson's Corps
     The portion of the Yankee army under Pope was as Warrenton on Wednesday, and it is stated that its retreat in the direction of Alexandria is entirely intercepted. The only route by which he could reach that point is by way of the Junction, which is now in possession of our forces. It is not probable that he will succeed in forcing his way back to the Potomac by taking that route. If this statement be correct — and we have no reason to question its authenticity — the only road for his escape would seem to be by way of the Plains to Middleburg, and from thence to Leesburg, in Loudoun county.
     Burnside, with his army corps, was at Fredericksburg yesterday, and was reinforced by two divisions of the army lately under McClellan, but will never reach Pope.
     We have met with so few obstructions in their advance. In Government circles there seems to be not the slightest apprehension for the safety of our army. Indeed, we have reason to believe that the most lively hopes are entertained of a triumph which will eclipse any that has been vouchsafed to our arms since the war commenced. The intelligence that the enemy has been reinforced has created no uneasiness, and not the remotest idea of a reverse is entertained.
     To gum up the whole, we are warranted in the conclusion that the enemy's forces are so situated that a further retreat would be decidedly more disastrous than the acceptance of battle, and that in either event he is inevitably subjected to reverse from which it will be no easy matter to recover.

Monday, July 25, 2016

HISTORY AS IT HAPPENED -- Beauregard promoted to full General

[The Richmond Daily Dispatch, July 26, 1861]
Gen P.G.T. Beauregard.
(CDV, blog author's collection)
General Beauregard.
On Monday, President Davis, while at Manassas Junction, raised this gallant General from the rank of a Brigadier to the rank of a full General, in token of his admiration of the achievement of Sunday, the 21st. A well deserved honor.

The battle of Stone Bridge.
additional Particulars.
official report of the fight.
      "A Louisianian" communicates the following interesting intelligence to this paper:
To the Editors of the Dispatch:
     The gallant Colonel Wheat is not dead, as was reported yesterday, but strong hopes are entertained of his recovery. All Louisiana, and I trust all lovers of heroism in the Confederate States, will say Amen to the prayer, that he and all his wounded compatriots in arms may be restored to the service of their country, to their families and friends, long to live and enjoy the honors due to their dauntless spirits.
Sketch of a Louisiana Tiger at the
First Battle of Manassas.
(La. Civil War Centennial Commission)
     I have just read a letter from Capt. George McCausland, Aid to General Evans, written on behalf of Major Wheat to a relative of Lt. Allen C. Dickinson, Adjutant of Wheat's Battalion.
For the information of the family and friends of Lieut. Dickinson, I extract a portion of the letter, viz! "He (Major Wheat,) deeply regrets to say that our dear friend (Lieut. D) was so unfortunate as to receive a wound, which, slight as it is, will prevent him, for some time, from rendering those services now so needed by our country. The would is in the leg, and although very painful, is not dangerous. To one who knows Lieut. D. as he supposes you do, it is unnecessary to say that he received the wound in the front, fighting as a soldier and a Southerner. With renewed assurances of the slightness of the wound, and of his appreciation of Lieut. Dickinson's gallantry, he begs you to feel no uneasiness on his account."
           Lieut. Dickinson is a native of Caroline county, Virginia, a relative of the families of Brashear, Magruder and Anderson. For some years he has resided in New Orleans, and at an early period joined a company of Lousianians to fight for the liberties of his country. He fought with his battalion, which was on the extreme left of our army and in the hottest of the contest, until he was wounded. His horse having been killed under him, he was on foot with sword in one hand and revolver in the other, about fifty yards from the enemy, when a Minnie ball struck him. He fell and lay over an hour, when, fortunately, Gen. Beauregard and Staff, and Capt. McCausland, passed. The generous McCausland dismounted and placed Dickinson on his horse.
      Of the bravery of Lieut. D., it is not necessary to say a word, when a man so well noted for chivalry as Robert Wheat has said that he appreciated the gallantry of his Adjutant. Lieut. D. is doing well and is enjoying the kind care and hospitality of Mr. Waggoner and family, on Clay street, in this city.
      Maj. Wheat's battalion fought on the extreme left, where the battle raged hottest. Although only 400 strong, they, with a Georgia regiment, charged a column of Federalists, mostly regulars, of 3,000. When the battle was over, less than half responded to the call, and some of them are wounded.
      When and where all were brave almost to a fault, it would seem invidious to discriminate. But from the position of the battalion, and the known courage of its leader, officers and men, the bloody result might have been anticipated. It is said of one of the companies that, upon reaching the enemy's column, they threw down their rifles, (having no bayonets,) drew their bowie-knives, and cut their way through the enemy, with a loss of two-thirds of the company.
Such was the dauntless bravery of Wheat's battalion, and such is the heroism of the Confederate army.
      Whilst we deeply mourn the honored dead, we rejoice that they died on the field of glory, and that by their conduct and their fall, suffering proof has been given to the enemy and the world that the Confederate States cannot be subjugated. Louisiana.
      The following, from another correspondent, relates to a well-known citizen of Richmond. We cordially endorse the suggestion that Sergeant Massenburg deserves promotion for gallant and meritorious services:
      Now that the smoke of the battle at Manassas is being cleared off, we may begin to give some of the more remarkable incidents of the day, and some of the many instances of individual fearlessness and valor.
      Sergeant James Massenburg, noted in Richmond as one of the best drill-masters before entering the service, is among those whose personal valor should be specially noticed. He belongs to the Thomas Artillery, of this city, an independent company, which was engaged for at least five hours in the hottest of the fight at Manassas. Early in the engagement, Sergeant Massenburg was stricken by a fragment from a bursting bombshell of the enemy, felled to the ground, and was borne from the field as among the dead.--In about half an hour he so far recovered as to be able to crawl back to his guns, and by his cheerfulness and encouraging words, did much to animate his almost famished companions. He was highly recommended to the Governor for a Lieutenancy before entering the service, and now that he has shown himself so eminently entitled to promotion, will no doubt receive it at the hands of the President, than whom no one better knows the value of such a soldier. Junius.
North Carolina Sixth.
We are gratified to learn, from the Enquirer, that the extent of the disasters suffered by this gallant regiment is far less than the reports have described. The rumor that they had been dreadfully cut up, grew doubtless out of the fact that, exhausted by the ardor of battle, and the fatigue of the subsequent pursuit of the enemy, they failed to return to camp, but bivouacked on the ground, where night overtook them. Provisions were sent to them by order of President Davis. These they greatly needed, having gone immediately from the cars to the battle, after eating no meal since Saturdaymorning. It is believed that no officer, save the lamented Col. Fisher, was killed.
A gallant Marylander killed.
In the list of the slain in the battle of last Sunday, we regret to see the name of Colonel Thomas, of Maryland, one of the aids to Gen. Johnston. Col. Thomas belonged to a family prominently and honorably identified with the history of Maryland for a century past. He was ardently attached to his native State, and felt keenly her present humiliation. He has fallen a martyr to the cause of Southern independence.
Interesting incident.
A correspondent of the Petersburg Express relates the following:
One of the most interesting incidents of the battle is presented in the case of Wylie P. Mangum, jr., son of Ex-Senator Mangum, of North Carolina. This young man was attached to Colonel Fisher's Regiment, I believe, and owes the preservation of his life to a copy of the Bible presented to him by his sister.--He had the good book in his left coat pocket. It was struck by a ball near the edge, but the book changed the direction of the bullet, and it glanced off, inflicting a severe, but not dangerous flesh wound. The book was saturated with blood, but the advice written on a fly leaf by the sister who gave it, was perfectly legible. It read thus: "To my brother. He will read a portion of this blessed word everyday, and remember his sister."
Who took Sherman's battery?
The Lynchburg Virginian asserts that it was Colonel J. A. Early, at the head of his gallant brigade, who charged upon and took the Sherman battery. The Virginian has this from a returned soldier who was in the fight on Sunday, and has learned it from several other sources. Gen. Beauregard pronounced it the most splendid military achievement he ever witnessed.
      Col. James Preston, of Montgomery, bore a conspicuous and gallant part in the capture of the battery, and was the first to lay his hand upon a gun, for which offence a retreating Yankee gave him a shot in the arm. We may also mention here that the 7th and 24th Virginia Regiments and the 7th Louisiana, form Col. Early's brigade.
Some of the killed and wounded.
Capt. Hale, of the Grayson Dare-Devils (says the Lynchburg Republican,) is among the killed in the battle on Sunday at Manassas. A large number of his company were also killed and many wounded. They were in the thickest of the fight, and acted in the most gallant manner.
      Lieut. John W. Daniel, son of Judge Wm. Daniel, of Lynchburg, fought gallantly and fell painfully but not dangerously wounded in the battle at Stone Bridge. He is not over eighteen years of age, and had just attached himself to the Confederate Army.
Capt. William Edmondson, of one of the Roanoke companies, was badly wounded in the battle at Stone Bridge on Sunday. His right jaw-bone was broken and his shoulder terribly incinerated by a shell, besides receiving a musket ball in his arm.
      Capt. Winston Radford and Alexander Irvin, of the Bedford Cavalry, and Valentine Rucker, of Amherst, Lieutenant in Captain Whitehead's company of Cavalry, were killed in making the magnificent charge which was made after the battle.
Farmville Guards.
The Farmville (Va.) Journal says:
       We learn that the "Guards" were in the fight of Sunday, for about three hours, and lost but one man--Mr. Wm. A. Wilson, who was killed. Mr. W. was a most estimable young man, and the intelligence of his death will bring sorrow to many hearts. His friends will have, however, the consolation of knowing that he died defending the cause of freedom and his native land.
      We learn, also, that during the fight, or the fight of the enemy, our friend John Jenkins, a "high private" in the Guards, captured two live Yankees and carried them safe into camp.

Determined to subjugate us.
The Northern Congressmen and journals redouble their menaces of death and destruction to the South. The South scorns and defies them. They don't know the people they are dealing with. They can never overrun this country. Their threats to violate women, to despoil farms, to make us their vassals, would convert even a nation of cowards into a nation of heroes. What, then, must be its effect upon a race as heroic as ever lived in all the tide of time? Nor need they misconstrue the calm contempt of the South for the foolish boastings of their vulgar Congressmen, and its forbearance to prisoners as the result of fear or a desire to propitiate them. The answer of the South to their brutal slang is in her sword — such an answer as they received at Bethel Church, at Bull's Run, and at Manassas. Let them multiply their forces. We shall have as many men in the field as themselves, and that will be twice as many as we shall need. Let them go on with their threats to hang Jeff. Davis and his Cabinet. When they begin their hanging game on the humblest son of the South that breathes, the best life they have shall pay for it, and if Lincoln and his Cabinet are not swung from one scaffold, it will be because they have concluded to conduct the war with humanity, or have escaped from Washington in Scotch caps, long cloaks, and fast midnight trains.

The Washington Artillery.
--We had the pleasure of an interview, yesterday, with Corporal E. C. Payne, of the Washington (N. O.) Artillery Battalion, which performed such an important part in the battle at Stone Bridge. It was this gentleman who was wounded in the action, and not private John Payne, as heretofore reported. The wound is, fortunately, not serious; though, under the circumstances, he had a narrow cacaos.--A fragment of shell struck him on the head and knocked him senseless, while he was bravely at work at his gun. The casualties to the Battalion in the two engagements are as follows in the battle of Bull's Run--Private George W.M killed; Captain Eshleman, and Privates Baker, Tarleton, Tully and Zebal, wounded. In the battle at Stone Bridge--Sergeants Joshua Reynolds, killed; Corporal Payne and Private Grawher, wounded. It is gratifying to know that all the wounded are recovering.

Wednesday, July 20, 2016

HISTORY AS IT HAPPENED-- The First Battle of Manassas, Aftermath

[The Richmond Daily Dispatch]

Pvt. William Baxter Ott, Co. I, 4th Va. Inf.
Killed in action July 21, 1861.
(Liljenquist Family Collection, Library of Congress)
Killed and wounded at the battle of Stone Bridge, Sunday, July 21st.
The following is a partial list of killed and wounded obtained from officers and privates at Manassas by a correspondent of the Enquirer:
Second Virginia Regiment.
Colonel Nelson, mortally wounded.
Botts' Greys--Private Manning, mortally wounded; private Timberlake, mortally wounded; private Eiscler, mortally wounded; private Middlekeff, slightly wounded.
Fourth Virginia Regiment.
Rockbridge Grays--Private Goolsby, mortally wounded; private Cox, mortally wounded; private Marstella, slightly wounded.
Montgomery Fencibles--Lieut. Langhorn, slightly wounded.
Fourth Alabama Regiment.
Lieutenant John Simpson, Company H, probably killed. Privates James Jackson, of Florence, wounded; Tom Kirkham, of Florence, wounded; Colonel Jones, severely wounded; Lieutenant Laws. wounded; Major Scott, wounded; Chas. Weem, wounded.
Second Virginia Regiment.
Captain Roan, mortally wounded; Captain Clarke, slightly wounded; Captain Chambers, killed; Private Scott Dishman, Company C, killed; Private Palmgrate, Company C, killed; Private Sam Ritter, Company C, wounded; Private C. Whiting, Company C, wounded; Private Mead, Clarke county, Company F, wounded.
Washington Artillery, of New Orleans.
Sergeant Joshua Reynolds, killed, struck in forehead by a shell, while giving word of command; Private John Payne, wounded; Private Crutcher, wounded.
Hampton Legion, of S. C.
Col.Hampton, wounded; Lieut. Col. Johnson, killed; Lieut. Egan, of Davis Guards, killed; Private Coutrie, WashingtonLight Infantry, Charleston, wounded; Private Bouknight, Watson Guards, slightly wounded; Private Brown, Washington Guards, slightly wounded.
Col. Sloan's 4th S. C. Regiment.
Corporal W. A. Young, of Capt Hollinsworth's company, killed, and Capt. Poole, mortally wounded.
20 Va. Regiment--Col. Allen's.
E. O. Burgess, Company F, killed; Issac N. Glaize, Company F. killed; William Young, Company F, killed; Lloyd Powell, Company F, killed; Capt. Clarke, Company F, wounded; William Glen, wounded; Strother Barton, wounded; Richard Meade, wounded; William Hobson, wounded; Chas Mitchell, mortally wounded;--Kidd, wounded.
30th Va Regiment.
Captain Winston Radford, from Bedford, of Radford's Rangers, killed; Edley Irvin, same company, killed; Private Fuqua, Clay Dragoons, Company A, Radford Rangers, killed; Corp'l C. Turpin, wounded, same company.
Col. Cash's 8th South Carolina Regiment.
Lieut. Cook, Company H, wounded; Capt. Harrington, Company G. wounded; Private Cook, Company G, wounded; Private Long, Company G, wounded; Private White, Company C, killed; Private Eilaby, Company C, wounded.
Private Dixon, Company F, killed.
Capt. Harrington, of Company G, (Colonel Cash's South Carolina Regiment) captured Hon. Mr. Ely, or Early, a member of the U. S. Congress, from Rochester District, N. Y.--an amateur fighter.
Twenty-right Virginia Regiment, Col. R. T. Preston.
Company B--Capt R. C. Runnels and private Z F Nutter, slightly wounded.
Capt. Kent's Company--First Lieutenant R. W. Saunders, wounded; Ed. Langhorne, killed.
General Kirby Smith, of Regular Army, was only wounded and not killed as at first reported.
Colonel R. T. Preston took Colonel Wilcox, of the Michigan regiment, one captain and three privates prisoners, with his own hands.
Gen. Johnston's Staff.
Colonel Thomas, killed; Colonel Mason, wounded.
Gen Bee's Staff.
Colonel C. H.Stevens, wounded.
Sixth North Carolina Regiment.
Col. Fisher, killed.
An estimate of the killed and wounded, by the Chief Military Surgeon at Gen. Beauregard's Headquarters, on the part of our army, places the amount at 300 to 400 killed, and 1000 to 1200 wounded.
On the part of the enemy, from 6,000 to 7,000 killed and wounded.


Tuesday, July 19, 2016

HISTORY AS IT HAPPENED -- The First Battle of Manassas, Va. July 21, 1861

Gen. P.G.T. Beauregard
[The Richmond Daily Dispatch, July 22, 1861]
The great victory.
     We have the inexpressible satisfaction of announcing this morning another victory of our arms; a decisive victory after the most hotly contested and most important battle ever fought on the American continent. The numbers engaged on each side was far beyond precedent in American history; and, fought as the battle was, under the gaze of two capitals of two powerful Confederacies, it possessed an interest and significance such as has attached to few battles ever before fought.
     It is not ascertained how many of the enemy were actually engaged; though the number could not have been much less than seventy-five thousand. The number actually engaged on our own side was nearly fifty thousand.--The skirmishing is said to have begun as early as four o'clock yesterday morning; the heavy fighting between eight and nine o'clock. It continued all day with unabated vigor.--Night closed upon the scene with the enemy in full retreat, hotly pursued by our gallant men.
     Our left was commanded by the brave Gen. Joseph E. Johnston, who had arrived on the field on the day before from Winchester with twenty thousand men. Patterson had, on Monday, marched down from Martinsburg to within a few miles of the entrenchments at Winchester, and had, on Wednesday, suddenly fallen back across the Potomac. Johnston at once determined to reinforce Beauregard, having no doubt that Patterson had been ordered to join Mcdowell. The result proved the correctness of this surmise, for Patterson's column constituted a part of the enemy's fighting force on yesterday.
      The centre of our line was commanded by President Davis in person; the left by the
Gen. J.E. Johnston
(Library of Congress)
glorious Beauregard.President Davis, with the energy and gallantry that belongs to his character, had no sooner delivered his Message to Congress in this city on Saturday, than he commenced his arrangements for sharing the fate of our army in the field. He accordingly left this city early yesterday morning, and arrived in time to take a decisive part in the battle.
      The heaviest onset of the enemy was made upon our left, under Gen. Johnston, and it was this division that suffered the heaviest loss. --It continued to be pressed during the whole of the day, until about four o'clock in the afternoon, when President Davis advanced his centre, disengaged a portion of the enemy's forces and decided the fortune of the day.
      The day is ours; but the victory, though glorious, has cost us dearly. Some of the casualties are stated in the telegraphic column. While we rejoice over the public success, we have to mourn the loss of some of the most gallant spirits and most valuable men of whom the South could boast. The events of to-day will be looked for with the deepest interest.


[The Richmond Daily Dispatch, July 24, 1861]
The great victory.
increasing excitement.
action of the Confederate Congress.
&c., &c., &c.
     The excitement in the city yesterday reached a height such as we never before witnessed. The anxiety of many of our own citizens subsided on learning that their kindred were uninjured in the great battle at Stone Bridge, and all seemed to unite in the general exultation. The intelligence from Washington, which we publish in our telegraphic column, was received at an early hour in the day, and immediately posted upon the bulletin board, around which a vast throng congregated, and so continued until night, cheering and otherwise giving expression to joyous feeling. Ladies caught the enthusiasm of the hour, and stopped to listen to the glad news, while pleasure sparkled in every bright eye. While this was the state of affairs in the Capital of the Confederate States, how was it in the doomed city where Lincoln, and Seward, and Scott, and hosts of corrupt satellites, have been planning iniquitous schemes and out-stripping even Satan in the atrocity of their machinations? Washington was shrouded in gloom; and we doubt not that the cowardly fiends fled to their hiding places, and trembled in apprehension of popular vengeance.
     To satisfy the demand of the public, an extra was issued from this office in the forenoon of yesterday, and thus the exciting intelligence was spread all over the city. It was in truth a day long to be remembered.
     The Confederate Congress, on Monday, passed appropriate resolutions after receiving the dispatch from President Davis, announcing the victory. These were alluded to in yesterday's paper, but the resolutions themselves were accidentally omitted. The official dispatch was presented by Mr. Memminger, who said:
     This announcement informs Congress that the invader of our soil has been driven back, that our altars have been purified and our homes secured from the ruthless hand of an unprincipled foe. But, sir, it has been at a cost that will bring sorrow into many families; wet with burning tears the cheeks of many widows and orphans, and into many happy homes bring grief and desolation; and I presume, sir, Congress will be little disposed on such an occasion to go on with their usual business. I have therefore taken the liberty of offering a series of resolutions, which I will submit to the attention of Congress, and ask their adoption.
     Resolved, That we recognize the hand of the Most High God, the King of Kings and Lord of Lords, in the glorious victory with which He has crowned our arms at Manassas; and that the people of these Confederate States are invited, by appropriate services on the ensuing Sabbath, to offer up their united thanks giving and prayers for this mighty deliverance.
     Resolved, That we deeply deplore the necessity which has washed the soil of our country with the blood of so many of our noble sons, and that we offer to their respective families and friends our warmest and most cordial sympathies, assuring them that the sacrifice made will be consecrated in the hearts of our people, and will there enshrine the names of the gallant dead, as the champions of free and Constitutional Government.
      Resolved, That we approve the prompt and patriotic efforts of the Mayor of the city of Richmond, to make provisions for the wounded, and that a committee of one member from each State be appointed to co-operate in the plan.
      Resolved, That Congress do now adjourn.
The resolutions were unanimously adopted, and Congress adjourned.
Incidents of the battle.
      It is stated that while Gen. Beauregard was leading Hampton's Legion into the thickest of the fight, his horse's head was shot off by a shell, which also killed the horses of two of his aids, Messrs. Heyward and Ferguson, of South Carolina.
    The member of the Washington Artillery who was killed, and whose body was brought to this city by his father on Monday night, was Sergeant Joshua Reynolds. He behaved with great coolness and gallantry in the fight until he received his fatal wound. We heard of but two others of this splendid battalion who were injured--Privates Payne and Crutcher.
Maj. C.R. Wheat
1st Bn. La. Vols.
(Confederate Veteran Magazine)
Major Wheat, of Louisiana, is reported badly wounded, and his battalion is said to have suffered severely.
     The friends of Lieut. Edgar Macon, of the Thomas Artillery, of this city, have received intelligence of his death.
     The Col. Willcox mentioned elsewhere as among the prisoners, surrendered to the 28th Virginia Regiment. It will gratify every true Virginian to learn of the capture of Captain Edward C. Carrington, who is connected with some of the best families in the South, none of whom would object to his consignment to the hands of an executioner. Another prisoner of rank is Col. Corcoran, of the 69th New York Regiment.
     Col. Francis S. Bartow, of Georgia, had taken the colors of his regiment in his hands, and was leading a brilliant charge, when he fell. The bereaved wife of the gallant officer was in Richmond when she heard the news of his death.
     Col. Kemper'sAlexandria Artillery receive high praise for their bravery in the action.--Their guns did tremendous execution.
Additional.
     The Central train arrived from Manassas Junction at half-past 7 o'clock last evening Several thousand persons had assembled, and the fact that some of our dead were brought in the train, changed the current of joy to some extent. This, however, did not prevent a cordial and enthusiastic welcome to President Davis, who was among the passengers An account of his arrival will be found in an other column.
     Many incidents were related of the fight, and all concur in the accounts elsewhere given of the complete rout of the Federal Army.
     We are enabled to state on the best authority that the loss in killed, on our side, does not exceed five hundred--probably not much over four hundred.
     It is currently reported, and even vouched for by some of the passengers, that Gen. Scott
Lt. Gen. T.J. "Stonewall" Jackson
(Library of Congress)
was near the scene of action in his carriage. When the retreat of his army took place, Scott left the vehicle and escaped in one direction, while the carriage drove off in another. Our men, of course, pursued the carriage and captured it, and in it found the sword and epaulette of the old General. A letter from Manassas tells the same story.
      At least a hundred wagons, loaded with army stores, were captured by the Confederates.
      A large number of muskets and other relics of the battle were brought down last evening. Not the least interesting among these were daguerreotype likenesses of females, found in the pockets or haversacks of those who expected to whip the "rebels."
      A doubtful rumor was in circulation that John Cochrane and Lovejoy, members of Congress, who came to see the fight, were taken prisoners.
     The "contraband" articles captured included fine brandies and wines, with which the Federals probably intended to hold a jollification, after their victory.
      The rumored capture of Gen. Patterson is unfounded.
      For a mass of intelligence, as reported from Washington, we refer the reader to the telegraphic columns. It will be seen that the enemy's lowest estimate of his loss is four to five thousand.