Monday, June 27, 2011

Hunley Upright For First Time In Over A Century


[Press Release]
The Hunley may not be ready to set sail again, but after today, she almost looks like she could.

Scientists finished their work of carefully rotating the Hunley to an upright position, completing a major milestone in the effort to save the world’s first successful combat submarine. And it was a moment 147 years in the making.

The Hunley has rested on her side at a 45-degree angle since the she was lost in 1864. The submarine was lifted from the ocean floor in that exact same position in 2000 and has remained on her side, until now. The historic shift in her delineation has left the Hunley upright on her keel as she was originally designed to be and in position to undergo her final mission: a complete preservation treatment.

Next, scientists will remove the straps and overhead truss that have held the Hunley since her recovery, exposing a new side of the vessel that has not been fully seen since the crew entered it over a century ago. This won’t be done for a few weeks, however, so scientists can have the additional support of the slings available while they ensure the submarine is completely stable in the new position.

Hunley Commission Chairman Senator Glenn McConnell said he is eager to have access to this new area of the submarine, hoping new clues may be uncovered that will provide insight into the mystery of the crew’s demise. “This is tremendous day for the project. Not only will the public soon have an unobstructed view, we will too. We may the find the crucial evidence we’ve been searching for in this newly exposed area” McConnell said.

The Hunley is a fragile 19th century artifact, making safely moving the approximate 7-ton, 40-foot submarine a challenging engineering feat and risky endeavor. The team spent two years planning the rotation and tested various simulations in advance on a 3D model.

The process to rotate the sub was at times slow and tedious and others nerve-racking. The painstaking project took three days, with scientists rotating the submarine mere millimeters at a time. After each incremental move, a series of computer monitors were checked to ensure even weight distribution with no major stresses on the submarine.

Two technical issues added hours, and a little tension, to the project. At one point, the bow started to dip too much toward the ground and scientists had to make modifications to get the submarine level again. They had anticipated the potential of this occurring though had hoped it would not affect the rotation.

Also, a laser monitoring system – critical to detecting any potential warping or damage that scientists were desperately trying to avoid – had to be adjusted one morning, causing a delay of a few hours for rotation work to start.

“It’s fair to say we are all breathing a collective sigh of relief now that the rotation is over. The laser never strayed more than a millimeter out of its target. Aside from minor technical issues, the rotation went according to plan with the sub remaining completely safe and intact,” Mike Drews, Director of Clemson University’s Warren Lasch Conservation Center, said.

This project would not have been possible without the generous support and expertise of J. A. King & Co., Parker Rigging, Inc., Detyens Shipyard and the entire Hunley team who worked tirelessly in support of this effort.

The Hunley Project

On the evening of February 17, 1864, the H. L. Hunley became the world’s first successful combat submarine by sinking the USS Housatonic. After signaling to shore that the mission had been accomplished, the submarine and her crew of eight mysteriously vanished. Lost at sea for over a century, the Hunley was located in 1995 by Clive Cussler’s National Underwater and Marine Agency (NUMA). The innovative hand-cranked vessel was raised in 2000 and delivered to the Warren Lasch Conservation Center, where an international team of scientists are at work to conserve the submarine for future generations and piece together clues to solve the mystery of her disappearance. The Hunley Project is conducted through a partnership with the Clemson University Restoration Institute, South Carolina Hunley Commission, Naval Historical Center, and Friends of the Hunley.

Wednesday, June 15, 2011

150-Years-Ago The Battle of Bethel Church

Gen. John Bankhead Magruder

The Richmond Daily Dispatch
June 15, 1861

The Peninsula battle further accounts.

From persons who left Yorktown two days after the battle at Bethel Church, we learn that on Wednesday morning our camp was approached by five New York Zouaves under a flag of truce. The object of their mission was ostensibly to be permitted to bury their dead and to effect an exchange of a prisoner. Their request, we understand, was granted by Col. Magruder. From several sources we hear that these men admitted they had 225 killed and wounded in the battle on Monday; and that at roll-call on Tuesday morning, 440 were missing.

Below we give further particulars of the battle:

Correspondence of the Richmond Dispatch.
Yorktown. June 11, 1861.
As the steamer from your city is in sight. I hasten to give you a brief description, of the battle of Bethel Church, which took place yesterday. For two days previous we had been anticipating an attack by the Federal troops, and on Saturday had stood an hour in a marsh a waiting their approach. On Sabbath afternoon at 4, the three companies under command of Lieut. Col. Smart, of Richmond, began the erection of earth works in a grave yard to the right of the Church, and beyond the creek. We continued the work till sunset, and made considerable progress.--This was the most advanced point of all the operations for defence — not very elevated, but the best that could be got. Yesterday morning at hall past three the bugle sounded "to arms." and in a few minutes the three companies — to wit: Young Guard, Capt. Charters; Henrico Southern Guard, Capt Children, of  Hanover; and the Life Guard, Capt walker, all of the 3d Regiment of Virginia Volunteers, Lieutenant Col. [William] Stuart commanding — were under arms, and started for a position just this side of the work on which they had been engaged the day before. It was a mill dam, which had been converted into a redoubt. After halting here a half hour, we were ordered to repair to our former position, on the little eminence to the right, in the grave-yard. Here we continued to work in the entrenchment, continuing it in a crescentic form, and concealing it from the enemy by newly-felled bushes and trees. The boys worked well, and were cheered to the labor by the announcement that the enemy were certainly approaching. Just before the engagement, learning that the enemy distinguish themselves by white badges on their arms, we put them (of white cotton) on our hats, and thus saved some lives, doubtless.
The fight.
At 9½ o'clock we espied two mounted men to our right, inspecting some fifty cords of wood that lay upon the road, and, we feared, with a design of erecting a battery behind it. The Colonel dispatched a member of the Life Guard to approach them, under cover of some brushwood that skirted a branch, to examine them more closely. After two inspections with the glass, we feared the realization of our first opinion. It appeared after wards that they were our friends. In a few moments the gleaming of hundreds of bayonets were seen just in our front, distant six or eight hundred yards above the top of a relic, and presently the wild cheering of the invaders was heard. In five minutes there after, bang went the [Richmond] Howitzer battery fifty yards to our left, and just in front of the main road, by which the enemy were approaching. In an instant the fire was returned with great spirit, and such a cannonading began as I never heard before. Shot and shell flew thick and fast, shaking the very earth by their reverberation. Thanks at last fell the branches from the neighboring trees, and as the shell burst in the air, our men watched the curling smoke with pleasure rather than fear. Our little detachment of Howitzers alluded to, under command of Capt. Brown, of Richmond, fought with great spirit. We had a full view of their firing. A ball from one of their riffed cannon almost made me tremble for its effects even upon the enemy as it rushed right down the road at a capital range, and must have torn some of the enemy limb from limb. Now. while our men canceled them-selves in the trenches keeping down their bayonets well from the sight of the enemy, I saw him deploy on our right, and presently sharpshooters leaped the fence just in front of us, about two hundred and fifty yards distant and we discovered them to be the (would be) famous [9th N.Y., Hawkin's] Zouaves, in their red pants. Our men became very anxious to fire upon them and Col. Stuart, who was above the breastwork fearlessly observing their approach, found it difficult to restrain them. They had been thrown out doubtless to pick off our Howitzers, and were entirely ignorant of out position. "Ready — aim — fire," commanded the Colonel, and the front rank of the first platoon of the Life Guard was in a blaze and one man certainly fell mortally wounded, and the rest threw them selves flat upon their faces and returned our fire. We continued to fire about five minutes by files, when the Zouaves got out of the open field much faster than they got into it. Concealing themselves behind; the fence and some neighboring houses, they continues a very well directed fire for perhaps an hour. The Minute balls whizzed after a fashion I never heard before. It was by a merciful Providence that not a man of us was hurt.--None of the officers occupied the ditch except partially, and one brave Colonel exposed his whole person to the enemy's fire. The balls often threw up the fresh earth upon the tops of our embankments, showing that they had the right range. Our commander kept his eye on the right of our position, fearing the approach of artillery, which we were not in a condition to resist. All this while, I forgot to state, the Howitzer Battery in its greatest strength under the command of Maj. Randolph, situated to our left and in the centre of our lines, and commanding a bridge which lay just in front of the Church, kept up a splendid fire, and no doubt with great effect. An unsuccessful attempt was made to burn the houses in our front, a thing that should have been done on Sunday, and the neglect of this obvious precaution caused one brave man to lose his life. As the enemy were now seen about 1,500 strong on our right supported by artillery, and covering their position by some brush wood, intending to storm our position, and Col. Stuart finding that the three companies under his command, numbering 190 men, would not be able without artillery to maintain their ground, sent a dispatch to Col. Magruder to that effect. Before my return from headquarters orders had been received to evacuate our trenches, and on my way back to our position I met our three companies retiring by a private road made the day before for the purpose, in the very best order. After this movement we took our position, by command of Col. Magruder, in a trench to the rear of the Church, and commanding the marsh which we had just passed.
There was some confusion at the Church owing to this movement, together with the breaking away of horses and the falling limbs from the tree; but order was soon restored, and we awaited anxiously the approach of the enemy.
Col. D.H. Hill
Meanwhile, deeds of valor were being performed upon the extreme left of our position by the brave [1st] North Carolina [Volunteers] boys, commanded by the hero, Col. [D.H.] Hill. Their entrenchments were unfortunately near a thick wood, skirted by a marsh, the wood so near that it furnished a fine cover for the enemy. Here he made a dash at the works, the only really spirited attack of the fight. But the ride boys were too strong for him. At one time I learn that he almost succeeded. and there was some confusion; but soon order was restored, and the victory won. A gallant Yankee Captain Jumped upon the fence in front of Col. Hill's line, and cheered on his men; but instantly fell dead, pierced at the heart by the steady handed marksmen of the Old North State All honor and glory to the dear Old North State. How I wished to cheer these troops as they passed our quarters yesterday afternoon but my feeble voice could not express the deep feelings of gratitude and admiration for the noble fellows, and I said in my heart, God bless you, my brave boys!
Just after we abandoned our trenches, Company "A" Capt. Atkinson, of our regiment, which had been stationed two miles off to guard a road, came up, and the enemy having retired in part, our right, Col. Stuart, with Capt. A. 's command, part of the Wythe Rifles and a detachment of Company "G"of North Carolina Rifles, resumed our former position on the flank and front. The Howitzer Battery, one piece of which having by accident, before we left our position, been rendered, useless, was now reinforced by Capt. Bridges company of Riflemen, and being annoyed by the fire of the enemy's musketry from the white house in front, four men were sent to burn it, and in the attempt a noble North Carolinian was shot in she head and died last night.--The effort failed and the house was finally fired by a shell.
At 2 o'clock the enemy's fire had nearly ceased, and, after a fight of four hours and a half, he began to retire. He was pursue by the cavalry to the bridge leading to Hampton, which, in his fright, he burnt after passing.
The Number of killed and wounded.
On our side, one man killed, (he died here last night,) and two others (one badly) wounded.
In all, there were eleven only wounded, and most of them, I think, slightly, I saw the worst cases. Our brave friend Hudnall, of the Howitzer Battery, was slightly wounded in his foot. I saw him last night, and he was doing well. Several of the Howitzers were among the wounded, and I learn bear their wounds bravely. Without them, we would probably have been whipped.
Of the killed of the enemy, there is necessarily much uncertainty. The general impression is, they lost about 200, about 50 of these killed. I think among the slain were two Captains and a Sergeant of the third New York Regiment.
Numbers Engaged.

Our whole force was not beyond 1,200. I made my calculation before the fight. Of these, 800 were from the Old North State; the remainder were Virginians. I do not think that more than one half of our number fired a single gun. Of our own detachment of 190 men, not more than one fifth fired. The Louisiana regiment arrived from York too late to participate in the fight.
Of the enemy (several of whom were captured) we learn there were four regiments. One man says there were 4,500 men. A lady on the road timed their passing her house, and says it occupied one hour. I think it may safely be put down at 3,000.
You will doubtless receive many interesting details of this engagement, and as I have already written far more than I expected, I must close.
Of the conduct of our own men, I feel some delicacy in speaking. Suffice it to say, that the officers and privates, we hope, have not impaired our ancient renown. The men were remarkably calm and resolute.
W.W. P.
P. S.--Wednesday--The boat left on yesterday before I got to the wharf, and I will add a word.
Monday evening, (the day of the fight.) the order was issued that our whole force should retire upon Yorktown, and the march was taken up at sunset. Everything was removed that was of any value. The following are the reasons for this movement: 1st Our ammunition was nearly exhausted. 2nd We were much farther from the "back bone." or strength of our position, than were the enemy. 3rd. The position itself is by no means a strong one--on the contrary, in some respects it is very week.
I have just learned that a wounded Sergeant of the enemy, says there were five regiments engaged, and that they were led on by Col. Phelps, of Vermont. The official report will not give, I think, a correct account of the killed of the enemy, as many have been found since in the woods. Up to Tuesday evening they had not sent to bury their dead, though there was a false rumor in the morning that they were advancing in a large body. P.

Saturday, June 11, 2011

150-Years-Ago -- The Zou-Zous Arrive in Richmond

Members of th 1st Battalion Louisiana Zouaves who were captured or deserted. (Harper's Weekly July 21, 1861)

 The Richmond Daily Dispatch
June 8, 1861

Richmond was yesterday thrown into a paroxysm of excitement by the arrival of the New Orleans Zouaves — a battalion of six hundred and thirty, as unique and picturesque looking Frenchmen as ever delighted the oculars of Napoleon the three.--They are just from Pensacola, which they left about eight days ago; having laid over one day at Montgomery. Ala., and are probably en route for Manassas.

The following is list of the officers:
Lieut. Col., G. Coppens.
Major W. Hillested.
Surgeon Ashton Miles.
Adjutant F. C. Zacharle.
L. Ange, Captain, Co. "A."
G. Fabre, 1st Lieutenant Ge. "A."
L. Florence, 2d Lieutenant Co. "A."
M. George, 3d Lieutenant Co. "A."
F. Bordinare, Capt. Co. "B."
D. Alexandrie, 1st Lieutenant.
R. Duaros, 2d Lieutenant.
C. Boumer, 3d Lieutenant.
H. H. Zacharie, Captain Co. "C."
V. Minot, 1st Lieutenant.
W. Frerit, 2d Lieutenant.
J. McNeil, 3d Lieutenant.
N. Lauve, Captain Co. "D."
C. Mansoul, 1st Lieutenant.
C. Lettellier, 2d Lieutenant.
A. Gaillard, 3d Lieutenant.
F. De Gournay, Captain Co. "E."
S. Pierson, 1st Lieutenant.
J. Kean, 2d Lieutenant.
A. Robira, 3d Lieutenant.
A. Copens, Captain Co. "F."
O. Lauve, 1st Lieutenant.
W. F. Foxter, 2d Lieutenant.
A. Holfin, 3d Lieutenant.

The volunteers were originally called for by its Lieut. Colonel, on the 17th of March last, and such was the alacrity with which the response was met, that on the 8th of April four hundred men started for Pensacola, where they were subsequently joined by two more companies, making the battalion complete. They have there been engaged in throwing up fortifications, and are said to have been the favorite soldiers of Gen. Bragg. If anybody wishes to see genuine French Zouaves, just as they looked in the Crimea, scrutinize these brave fellows. They are generally small, but wiry, muscular, active as cats, and brown as a side of sole leather. Twenty or thirty are New Orleans Irishmen, one hundred or thereabouts are Swiss, and quite a number are Germans, but the majority are American Frenchmen. Many of them served in the Crimea, and the whole body is ready at this moment to storm purgatory, were the order given to do so, if that uncomfortable place was so full of abolitionists that their heads stuck out of the windows. Their dress is the attire and material of the regular French Zouave — embroidered blue jackets, red baggy trousers, black leather leggins and white gaiters — the costume being surmounted by the inevitable red cap, which rests jauntily upon the back of their short-cropped heads.

Just now, as may be expected after eight days of travel, they look painfully , but after they have indulged themselves as their ordinary ablutions, they will make a show that will wake up several ideas to the effect that the South are able to produce the ne plus ultra of genuine fighting stock, in whose knowledge of the English language no such word as "fail" has ever made an intrusion. Their great desire is to meet the "pet lambs" of the late Colonel Ellsworth,-in-which we trust they will be speedily accommodated. If they do, they will walk through the New York rowdies like a whirlwind. Their principal fare, since leaving Pensacola, has been crackers, cheese, and whiskey, and they are in sad want of more substantial aliment.

They also want knapsacks and shoes, which will doubtless be supplied to them before their departure for camp. Many of them strolled through the streets during the afternoon and attracted general attention, but there was no public parade. They are quartered in Glazebrook's warehouse, near the Petersburg depot, a five-story building; but they disdained to come down stairs like ordinary mortals, and descended in characteristic style from the windows. The modus operandi of this performance was something like the following: One would hang by his hands to the window sill; a second would slide down his back and freeze to his heels, while the third taking one of his smaller companions by a strong nip at the seat of his breeches, as a sort of ballast, we suppose, would turn four or five somersaults and roll down the novel bridge into the window of the story below. We didn't see these gymnastics, but this is "what they say."

Monday, June 6, 2011

Camp Moore Sesquicentennial

Camp Moore Confederate Cemetery and Museum held its Sesquicentennial
commemoration Sunday, June 5, at the historic site in Tangipahoa, La. More
photographs of the event follow the story. (Photo by Mike Jones)
By Mike Jones
     TANGIPAHOA, La. - Camp Moore Confederate Cemetery and Museum commemorated the 150th anniversary of its existence with a special program Sunday, June 5, including an open house, a special guest speaker, decorating graves and paying memorial tribute to the soldiers buried there.
     Located off Hwy. 51 and the New Orleans, Jackson and Great Northern Railroad about 80 miles north of New Orleans, Camp Moore was the main basic training camp for the Confederate Army in Louisiana. It provided an ideal site for training Confederate soldier with its location, plenty of water and piney woods. Thousands of men were trained for defense of Southern Independence and hundreds died there of various causes.
     After the end of the war, the site became a place to commemorate the Confederate war dead and its value of as a historic site was eventually recognized and the State of Louisiana. The state acquired the property. In 1965 the beautiful museum building was opened and displays many fine artifacts. But in 1986 Gov. Edwin Edwards closed Camp Moore and other commemorative sites due to an economic down turn. In 1993 the Camp Moore Historical  Association acquired the property from the state under a 97-year lease and reopened it.
      The well-maintained facility is now operated and lovingly maintained by the dedicated volunteers of the Camp Moore Historical Association. CMHA has refurbished and enhanced the museum and cemetery and hosts an annual reenactment every November.
     To learn more about how to support Camp Moore click here.
     Among the activities for the Sesquicentennial was a special ceremony performed by the 7th Louisiana Infantry living history reenactment group. The unit, nicknamed the Pelican Regiment, was formed there at Camp Moore on June 5, 1861.
     Also, there were special  ceremonies honoring the Confederate dead in the cemetery, estimated to be around 400.
     Charles Elliott, history professor at Southeastern Louisiana University in Hammond, La. gave a very interesting program on Camp Moore and the important role it played in preparing men for war.
     Refreshments were served and the event was well attended by the public.

Members of the 7th Louisiana Infantry, "Pelican Regiment," living history
reenactment group held a special ceremony to mark the 150th anniversary
of the formation of the unit on that very day in 1861. (Photo by Mike Jones)

Mike Jones, in full zouave regalia of Company B (Tiger Rifles), First Special
Battalion Louisiana Volunteers, standing next to the Confederate soldier statue
just outside the cemetery, honored the members of that unit who were training
at Camp Moore at this time in 1861. He also decorated the grave of Pvt. William
Douglas, a member of the Tiger Rifles who was killed accidentally at Camp Moore
shortly after the camp opened in May 1861. (Photo by Susan Jones)

Charles Elliott of Southeastern Louisiana University gave a very informative program
on the importance of Camp Moore in training men for the Confederate Army. (Photo by Mike Jones)

Members of the United Daughters of the Confederacy and Sons of Confederate
Veterans placed memorial wreaths at the Confederate monument in the Camp Moore
Cemetery. (Photo by Mike Jones)

The 7th Louisiana Infantry fired a volley in salute to the honor of the
Confederate dead buried in the Camp Moore Cemetery. (Photo by  Mike Jones)

Thursday, June 2, 2011

150-years-ago -- A Report From Camp Moore, Louisiana

[Editor's Note: Camp Moore Confederate Cemetery and Museum is celebrating it's 150th anniversary Sunday, June 5, with a special program at 2 p.m. Here is a period newpaper report on life in the camp for the Confederate soldiers at this very time in 1861.]

This is an excellent 6h plate tintype of a Louisiana Confederate
soldier. Although unidentified, he is plainly wearing a Louisiana
Pelican belt plate. His uniform is typical of ones issued to
Louisiana troops. It is very likely, but not certain, that it was  taken
at Camp Moore. It is typical of the style and quality of photos being
made at Camp Moore at this time 150-years-ago.  
             Liljenquist Family collection (Library of Congress) 
The New Orleans Daily True Delta
June 4, 1861

     A visit to Camp Moore being now the prevailing novelty, we went, remained forty-eight hours, and saw more of camp life than we had ever seen before. To the denizens of the pent-up city there is something truly refreshing in the primitive manner in which "roughing it in the bush" is generally conducted. All the formalities of fashionable life are laid aside, and enjoyment, rough and ready, is the highest object aimed at. But the strict discipline of a military camp's new features are imparted to "a life in the woods," and this discipline, we find, only adds to the zest of unrestrained enjoyment when the duties of the day, with their "pomp and circumstance," are, for the time being, over, and the Richards of the ranks are themselves again. Our soldiers are no puritans. Though enlisted chiefly for the performance of tragic duties, they  are ever ready to take a part in comedy or farce, and the skill they display in those lighter entertainment, will never be found to  serve as a drawback on the graver qualities which must mark a soldier's bearing. In the camp there are many excellent musicians, and the nightly serenade comes as a pleasant  relief when the day's deverish excitements are over. The sounds of voice and instrument appear to be wider in compass and richer in volume, when borne away amid the murmurs of the pines, than if uttered in most stately of man-made structures. The giant oak and the mountain pine served as the colonnades of God's first temples, and still they reach upward to the skies, with their coronals of green, as if instinct with high aspirations and cheering benedictions.
     Among the most satisfactory features of Camp Moore are the excellence and abundance of its waters. The bathing is not to be surpassed anywhere, and the boys enjoy it as their dearest and at the same time cheapest luxury. This, in part, accounts for the fine health which prevails throughout the camp, and the rest may be accounted for by the substantials  of life, which they obtain without stint, and the lofty purpose by which they are animated.
     The visitors to Camp Moore, and they are legion, are greatly amused by the fancy means with which most of the tents are inscribed. "Our Woodland Home" is found in close proximity with "The Lion's Den," and "Happy Retreat" with "Blood and Thunder."
      Being acquainted with most of the officers and many of the privates, we had a good opportunity of seeing and hearing all that was to be seen and heard. Of  course there is more or less dissatisfaction, for in the intercourse of thousands all are not likely to be pleased, but there is a more general feeling of good will than usually obtains among congregated hosts, and the desire most frequently expressed is to be up and at the enemy.
      In consequence of the dry weather which we have had of late the parade ground is unpleasantly dusty, and during the middle of the day the pines serve as but a very imperfect shelter. These are the chief disadvantages of the location, but they are counterbalanced by advantages so manifest that but few complaints are made, though the chaplains are constantly petitioned to pray for refreshing showers and the shelter of overhanging clouds. Almost every day there is an increase of one or more companies to the numbers in the camp, and when the day of trial comes the regiments trained at Camp Moore are certain to make a bloody mark on the army roll of the enemy.
      For many favors received during our sojourn in camp we are indebted to the officers of every regiment. They have our thanks, individually and collectively, and our prayers of the future well-being and success.

Wednesday, June 1, 2011

150-Years-Ago -- Davis and Beauregard Arrive in Richmond

General Beauregard

President Davis
The Richmond Daily Dispatch
June 1, 1861
     The arrival of these two distinguished gentlemen in Richmond, one the Chief Magistrate of the Confederacy, and the other the hero of the first battle in behalf of Southern Rights, is not only opportune as regards the momentous crisis through which we are passing, but important in its moral effect upon our people. Their presence will give a tone to public affairs and to public men, and impart vigor, impetus and activity, in both the Civil and Military Departments of our Government. Our troops will be inspired with fresh confidence, though it has never been wanting in the leaders we have already in the field; and we shall probably at once begin to experience the results of that vigorous policy which has in a few short months consolidated the Southern States in one of the strongest Governments of the world. We shall have a fight, and we shall conquer. The providence which has thus far blessed every movement that has been made in behalf of Southern Rights, will not desert us in the trying hour of our destiny, and with such instruments in the field as President Davis, Toombs, Wigfall, Beauregard, Lee, Johnston, Bonham, Huger, Wise, and the host of brave men gathered around them, we cannot but triumph over all opposition.
     There are now upon the soil of Virginia some of the best blood and talent of our country; men who have adorned the fireside, forum and the field; men who have staked "their lives, their fortunes, and their sacred honor;" men who will never turn their backs upon the enemy until he has been driven from the State. South Carolina has sent her Manning, Preston, and Huger; Louisiana her Beauregard; Georgia her Toombs, and Texas her Wigfall. Other States have likewise contributed their brightest and best names to the galaxy, hundreds of whom are in the ranks as private soldiers; while every family in old Virginia that ever had a position has sent its representative men to do their share in the coming conflict. With such leaders and such followers, we are invincible, and though, in the language of the brave Tatnall, "blood is thicker than water," the soil will soak with the contents of the hearts of the men of the Old Dominion, before they yield one jot to the treacherous foe who are now within our borders.